Feminism Types and Definitions: Waves, Socialist, Culture, Standpint & Radical


Throughout 19th century feminism raised as a movement of equalizing social, political, economic and domestic rights of women. This also included the scope of more opportunities for them in education and in office. Women were not allowed to take part in any sort of political activity or an activity which involved exposure of women and rise of their position. This movement was started through pen in west.

“Feminism should persist in seeing itself as a component or offshoot of enlightenment modernism, rather than as one more ‘exciting’ feature in a postmodern social landscape (Lovibond, 1993 Postmodernism: A reader cited in Aslam, 2012).”

Ahead of 1850s, the upcoming years were a glory for women who supported feminism as the movement got enhancement during this period. The alarming increase in the number of women craving for financial income was damn to high. It drew attention of international media towards the white women of Europe’s upper and middle class. The number single women in this aspect was greater than the women who were married. They were very few alternatives available for them to get married and have children. Feminism developed throughout 19th and 20th century gradually. Some experts called this gradual uplifting of feminism as “Waves of Feminism” and describe it three steps.

First Wave of Feminism

As mentioned above feminism strengthened its footing gradually throughout the 19th century by starting from the first phase. We can call ‘the first wave’ of feminism in early 19th century with the first serious step taken to achieve equality for feminine soul in some spheres of life. For example, social and legal representation of women along men through media were encouraged. It was not until the 1850s that the feminist movement got the grassroots growth officially and emerged worldwide due to its participant’s firm footing and steadfastness (Aslam, 2012:4).

Marry Wollstonecraft took a major part in progressing the development of feminism in England by expressing the structure of feminine communities of middle and upper class of England. The official body was formed under the leadership that came from the head quarter in Langham Palace in United Kingdom. Barbara Bodichon (1827-91) and Rayner Parkes (1829-1925) raised voice for middle class feminine bodies by meeting to talk about an issue and later forming an organization under which the first women’s journal published the ‘Great Britain’.

Main Agenda of First Wave of Feminism

The main cause of feminism was not to support the working women, nor the married women, but the unmarried ones in the middle of whole Victorian society. They were mainly concerned with the carrier, education and the find way of an alternative life for those who tend marrying not. They were actually concerned with the security to give psychological confidence to women that they can live with a masculine power too. Some of the modern feminine souls of those days considered themselves doing a social work instead of leading a movement and didn’t considered themselves as feminists, even the term was not yet introduced and later became to public awareness in 1895. The members of first wave feminism couldn’t address and express properly the problems faced by overall feminine bodies but they actually could express what they had experiences in their own personal lives.

Later they also became in favor of the married women and started working to secure their rights too. Their major successes included the introduction of college education for chaps. The education system at secondary level for women was also changed a lot by the influence of feminist movements. The privilege of residence for married women also remained a major objective of this movement for a long time. Opportunities were increased for educated women for participating in nationwide examinations and even worldwide carriers.

Major milestone was achieved as soon as the “Women’s Property Act of 1870” was introduced. The dedication brought some colors to the lives when the court started taking positive steps towards the rights of diverse women and the increasing facilities for care of their children but the movement really remained unsuccessful regarding the aspect of giving vote power to women which was later resolved after the first world war.

Second Wave of Feminism

The ‘First World War’ indicated towards the demolishment of the first wave and feminism was relighted by the struggle of Marsha Lier who renewed the movement and invented the term “The Second Wave Feminism”. All the struggles and achievements remained in Europe and here came USA with a totally different atmosphere and nothing achieved. Gender discrimination was at its peak, women were not allowed to take part in social activities and they had to gain a lot as the European women did. They were generally ignored as the priority taking issue of “Civil War” emerged and prevailed. Women started taking actions against the war and the discrimination and joined their hands together in form of groups to increase their importance and raised their slogans to get attention after being frustrated by consistent ignorance and gender discrimination at the second class level. Students also greatly got involved as feminine souls were not given such importance regarding education as the masculine were awarded.

Third Wave/Post-feminism

The failure of better organized second wave feminism movement insisted the linguists and other related individuals of all fields, especially feminists, to wage another movement to conclude the movement for feminine souls. It was called the third-wave of even the post-feminism which indicated the pure aim of concluding the issue. It distinguished itself from the second wave feminist movement by the aspects of every phase of feminine life which aimed at sexuality mainly. Female empowerment was developed sexually and female heterosexuality was boosted by the objectives of third wave feminism. The division of women into lower/upper/middle class and colors was harshly condemned by the feminists who followed the third wave feminism. Aslam (2012) described this part in a unique way as:

“Third-wave feminism is a phrase determined with several different variations of feminist action and research, whose real limitations in the historiography of feminism are a topic of controversy, but are often noticeable as starting in the Early and recurring to the existing” (Aslam, 2012:6).

Achivements of Third Wave of Feminism

The period between 1960s and 1990s victimized the effects of post second feminism and pre-third wave feminism which made it historic at its part with the development of the though and understanding that women are of “many colors, civilizations, cultures, regions, verities, and beliefs along with their social backgrounds” (Aslam, 2012). The third-wave encompasses a vast area as it deals with latest trends in feminine world keeping in view essentialism, femininity, heterosexuality, structuralism, gender differentiation, leadership and gender interpretation.

Another additional aspects of third-wave is it being called post-feminism. Since the 1980s there have been different things which need separation in clarification while discussion of feminism. The range of viewpoint differed and this part needed an exclusive name which was fulfilled by using the term post-feminism in termed along with post-modernism. The post-feminists remained in the circle of feminism but still criticized the third wave feminists as they thought that the feminine soul has achieved everything it needed to complete its body during the second wave feminism. Some linguists and literary personalities also went upon the idea that this thinking discrimination is main difference which caused the emergence of the term post-feminism. Even though the modern writers and researchers are aware of the conscience difference which is blamed of being a backlash of feminist movement.

Standpoint Feminism

The participants of second wane feminism faded away until 1980s and a few were left insisted upon the beginning of third-wave feminism and argued that feminist movement should include the major global issues faced by feminine body instead of just focusing  over the upper middle class of Europe. The issues they asked about to be viewed included rape, incest, prostitution and homosexuality and some cultural specifications such as the major gender discrimination at woman’s part in Africa and Middle East. This slogan was raised in order to understand the relation of racism, colonization, homosexuality and classifications with the gender inequality and distributions prevailed across the globe. The oppression towards women and the effects of dominance of masculine soul in patriarchal society also caused this idea to develop as for as possible in whole world.

Feminist Literary Criticism/Theory

Discussing the “feminist theory” more broadly we enter the phase of “feminist literary criticism” in the Victorian age the women of England’s upper and upper middle class were treated very badly as they were not allowed exposed themselves and get some attention by expressing their abilities. So it was obvious that every single action by a feminine soul was condemned harshly and the good abilities and talents always remained hidden from the world. This discrimination prevailed a state of hue and psychological complex amongst women. The aspect created a great problem and soon it became a social issue to promote the thinking of women and make the feminine community arise. Some men also joined their hands and starting preaching about the heavenly places where men and women were treated equally regardless of any gender discrimination and racial difference.

“The belief in the fact that there is a plural vision of this world which gives more importance to women and consider them equally significant as men, unaware of their class, is well explained in and advocated in feminist theory” (Richards: 1992 cited in Bibi, 2013:18).

Lois Tyson suggested of this being the major reason of women’s work on literature not considered equally important and wise as men’s. Another linguist Lisa Tuttle described the “feminist literary criticism” as “the way of asking new questions of old texts” (Bibi, 2013: 19).

Radical Feminism

English: photo by Denis Gray (denisgray@hotmai...
English: photo by Denis Gray (denisgray@hotmail.com) Kathleen Hanna with Bikini Kill – 17 January, 1996 – Annandale Hotel, Sydney Australia Terms of Use: All users of this image are required to attribute this work to “Denis Gray” (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The class of feminism which deals with the discrimination, opposition and oppression towards women by the patriarchal dominance of societies, covered under this topic by the name “radical feminism”. The superiority of men in many aspects of life kept women away from being in power. The “radical feminism” discusses this phase in detail and keeps a check on the solutions of this problem in literary circles (Bibi, 2013:19).

The students and researchers of “radical feminism” faced deep seated criticism against their views for taking the side of feminine soul which raises different issues over the time in all the classes regarding sexual harassment, homosexuality, discrimination, racial difference and class-based discrimination and lesbian production due unwilling to work with men as for their discrimination.

Newspaper Discourse

Newspaper Discourse

Foucault (1974) discusses Discourse in terms of language link with culture, making its direct reference with the Newspapers as it is related to the social function of language. Discourse claims that the language used about a particular practice constructs the object of which it speaks.

In contrast to two major models, the Van Dijk’s social cognitive model and Wodak’s discourse historic model, Fairclough (1995) resorts to discourse analysis oriented towards sociolinguistics and to social theories regarding discourse in order to create a theoretical framework of CDA with three dimensions. Through these theories he studied the existing relationship between discourse and larger structures of society. In his study, the very first dimension is discourse as a text. Its goal is the study of different features in a text regarding discourses and it also inquires text sign, the reasons for this design, and other different possibilities. Through examining the choices of the linguistic forms of texts, it aims at revealing the function of such textual features and its role in production or resistance of the systems of ideology and power hierarchy. The second dimension of his study is discourse as material practice. It examines the process of its production, circulation and consumption.

For Fairclough (1992), the three dimensions of discourses respectively correspond to three analytical traditions. They are linguistics tradition with close textual and linguistic analysis; the macro sociological tradition with an emphasis on social structures; and the interpretive or micro sociological tradition that stresses individual action and agency.

CDA methods state that the discourse in newspaper forms a circular process. In it, social roles as well as different practices interfere with the text, as they shape its context and production manner. In a similar way, newspaper texts also have an influence in society by shaping the readers’ points of view (Richardson, 2007). Textual analysis is the first level of analysis in the Newspaper discourse, as it conveys the imprint of society i.e. connoted and denoted meanings. Occasionally reports of events are not entirely true or objective; they employ rhetorical strategies that are called rhetorical tropes. Corbett (1990) defined a trope as something that deviates from the original, ordinary meaning of a word (p. 426).

Newspaper discourse is characterized by following important features (see Bell, 1991, p.85; Fairclough, 1995a, p.36 and Biber, 1993, p.246): First, it has multiple creator or designers and a complex process of news writing news should be conceived as a product that derives from organizational structures and professional practices (Bell, 1991, p. 38). Accordingly, it is impossible to conceive any story alone, unique, a first-hand product from its source journalist, if we have not witnessed the journalist at work. A Newspaper by line does not guarantee the authorship (Bell, 1991, p.42). Newspaper Discourse lacks direct feedback, confusion, fragmentation, interaction, presence of audience, all of them characteristics of mass communication.

Stereotyping as regards how objective can communication via mass media be, it should be noted that readers and speakers have a stereotyped image in mind. It means reader has to identify newspaper as an institution i.e. the journalist is seen by them as merely an ‘institutional voice’ (Lindegren-Lerman, 1983, cited in Van Dijk, 1988a, p.75). Similarly stereotyped readers exist both in the minds of the communicators as well as in the text, i.e. they are partly constructed or construed through the text. It does not actually address the individual readers but the reader is addressed as a social group.

Embedding: News is always an embedded talk. Inside the News text produced by the author, other speech events or actions are rooted. Each has its own sender, receiver, and setting of time and place (Bell, 1991). News style is also controlled by some other general factors after (Van Dijk, 1988a, p.74):

  • News is a written type of discourse which qualifies the general limits imposed by written or printed texts.
  • It is confined by the possible topics of news discourse i.e. politics, either at a national or at an international level, military conflicts, social concerns, violence, disasters, sports, artistic creations, science and issues of human interest in general.
  • It is usually restricted to a formal communication style. It is every day, common, spoken language is deemed inappropriate, and only admitted within quotations ‘at least in the broadsheets.’
  • It is affected by time and space constraints. Its deadlines require fast writing and editing. Syntax and lexicalization must be of routine/ daily life to some degree. The fixed patterns of sentences are taught by journalism textbooks. Its room requires a condensed writing style to avoid repetitions. Sentences are crowded with much information in relative clauses; and nominalizations ‘which capture whole propositions’ are also significant.
  • It is influenced by the specifics of printing and layouts. Last but not the least, mass media outputs appear periodically and are accessible to a large audience (Jucker, 1995).


Literary study regarding women’s misery

Literary study regarding women’s misery

“A literature of their own” by Elaine Showalter exactly illustrates how the literature before the Victorian age differs from the modern age and the research also sketches the whole picture of the role of women in this aspect. Whole the research is laid down by her in three simple and seemingly broken down way, as she explains the very first way as by the name “Feminine”, which extends to the time interval 1840 to 1880, as it ends with the sad demise of one of the key feminine souls of the feminine body, George Eliot. The second one being the “Feminist”, which extends from 1880 to 1920, and it goes like beginning from Eliot’s death and ending at the successful achievement of women in the vote movement they started. And it came to an end in the 1960’s with the new level of confidence in female soul which started prevailing in 1920 and with the fierce name of the “Females” by Showalter. (Showalter, 1977, p.17)

She takes a care of the other subcultures while studying these, her self created, levels of women’s sufferings and struggle. She also discusses the aspect of the Dark (Black people) and the oppressed feminine souls in patronizing cultures. The reason behind the astonishing solidarity in the character of a woman even being a hell emotional and a lot self obsessed is “a distributed and much discreet and ritualized actual physical meet… the female sex-related life-cycle” (Showalter, 1977). Feminist writers have always written keeping in view this common aspect, and they have influenced a lot on the minds of readers of all time by their themes. This makes women a whole body which share same issues and have same problem which make them unite, and off course, when a unity comes in formation, it makes its functions, aims, objections and perhaps, some oppositions. In this case the main opposition which is formed automatically and without any conscious effort is the patriarchal leadership and patronizing system of governing a society.

Literature never forms without getting an influence from the reality of life. It first develops in the streets of the nation and slowly comes to the official level entering into the mini screen of the culture. Then it develops in the literature slowly when the literary figures of the nation starts using it in an informal way of expressing their character’s feelings in an effective way. The process of replica of the syntax is followed by this process immediately. This is called the “internalization of replica’s requirements of art and its opinions on community tasks” in literary perspective (Showalter, 1977). The Role of female soul in this literary evolution is mandatory and major as feminine soul is known for its self-obsession, firm grasp and the ability, or in some cases disadvantageous property of getting easily influenced. Some of the feminist roles responsible for this big revolution are Bronte’s, Elizabeth Gaskell, Elizabeth Browning, MartineauEliot, and  Nightingale. The later batch of the same school consists of Charlotte Yonge, Dinah Crack, Margret Oliphant, and Elizabeth Lynn Linton.

With the development of literary Feminism the activists of the nations gained a boost and started their activities on a larger scale. They also expressed their desire of living a leading life of men and starting the protest of getting their rights silently. They named it “Protest while Obedience” according to Showalter. The fact that during the Victorian age the women of the novel writing industry did a lot to secure their place in the community and form a parallel community which functions as the masculine souls, and they were also, to an extent, successful in their aim, as the Victorian age in literary perspective is commonly known for the works of feminine feminists, but still, this could not change the fact of women being disabled of writing metaphorically sensible novels and creating other such pieces of literature (Showalter, 1977). According to some critics, this was their way of getting freedom from the bitter fact of them being the property of the patriarchal authority of the Victorian supremacy, but according to the point of view of the researcher, this statement becomes a lot oppressive and racist as the women are directly hit in this critique.

The next topic which comes on the board of discussion is Showalter’s second division or level 2 of the issue, namely “Feminine Opposition”. Eyelash out against the conventional requirements and principles, strenuous their privileges and sovereignty be acknowledged. In this Feminist level, feminist literature had different perspectives of assault. Some women had written community commentaries, converting their own sufferings to those of the inadequate, the working class, slaves, and hookers, thereby air flow their feeling of disfavor in a right style. They extended their area of effect by making inroads into community work. In an absolutely different route, the 1870s feeling books of Mary BraedonRhoda Broughton, and Marryat, explored truly extreme female demonstration against wedding and women’s financial oppression, although still in the structure of feminine conferences that required the erring heroine’s devastation (Showalter 1977). Their golden-haired doll-like paradigms of womanhood concept contemporary goals of Angels in the House by switching out to be mad bigamist and would-be murderess.

Militant suffragists also had written prolifically during this demonstration level of literature. Females such as Sarah Grand, George Egerton, Mona Caird, Elizabeth Robins, and Olive Schreiner made “fiction the automobile for a dramatization of offended womanhood… demand[ing] changes in the community and governmental techniques that would allow women men privileges and need chastity and constancy from men” (Showalter, 1977). On the, Showalter discovers these women’s documents not illustrations of excellent literature. Their tasks worried themselves more with a concept than the making of art, though their denial of male-imposed descriptions and self-imposed oppression started out the gates for development of female identification, feminist concept, and the feminine visual.

The third interval, then, is acknowledged by a self-discovery and some independence “from some of reliance of opposition” (Showalter, 1977) as a method for self-definition. Some authors end up switching in during the following search for identification. In the beginning 50 percent of Females level of composing, it carried… the doubled history of feminine self-hatred and feminist drawback… [Turning] more and more toward a separatist literature of inner area (Showalter, 1977). Dorothy RichardsonKatherine Mansfield, and Virginia Woolf proved helpful towards a female visual, increasing libido to a world-polarizing perseverance. Moreover, the feminine experience and its innovative ways organized mystic significance — both transcendental and self-destructive weaknesses.

They applied the social research of the feminists [before them] to terms, phrases, and components of terminology in the story (Showalter, 1977).

 However, Showalter criticizes their performance for their and orgiastic natures. For all its issue with sex-related descriptions and libido, the composing prevents real get in touch with the body, disengaging from people into “A Room of One’s Own.

This modified when the feminine novel joined a new level in the 1960s. With 20th Century Freudian and Marxist research and two hundreds of years of female custom, authors such as Iris Murdoch, Muriel Spark, Doris Lessing, Margaret Drabble, A.S. Bayt, and Beryl Bainbridge accessibility women’s encounter-rs. Using formerly taboo terminology and circumstances, “anger and libido are approved… as resources of female innovative power” (Showalter, 1977).

Showalter’s research reveals how development of women’s composing achieved this level and conveys all the disputes and battles still impacting the existing of women’s literature.

women[ ATTRIBUTE: Please check: http://www.flickr.com/photos/29069717@N02/24893574536 to find out how to attribute this image ]

  • Showalter, Elaine. A literature of their own: British women novelists from Brontë to Lessing. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1977.

Feminism in Bapsi Sidhwa’s Ice Candy Man

Feminism in Bapsi Sidhwa’s Ice Candy Man

Regarding feminism; accurately this indictment that the ‘will of men’ had brought on the Women that places this novel apart from the other Women stories. Ice Candy Man is exclusive in illustrating not only the assault that was revealed on the women of the subcontinent but also in its valorization of the indictment and bravery that women are able in periods of disaster. Colors of contemporary feminism as well as would be found in Sidhwa’s work.

Feminism & Women’s Power

Sidhwa’s interpretation of Lenny’s own ideas, of Ayah’s overall rejection to take her destiny, of Godmother’s ingenuity, and of Lenny’s mother and aunt’s initiatives at recovery – all join to offer organization to women in this novel in the perspective of feminism. Sidhwa’s Women-centered story thus vindicates the power of women to create options and to take the reins of their life in their own arms, which actually volumes to an act of fantastic defiance, especially if we keep in thoughts the particular conditions of Ayah’s situation. Thus, though being a novel which seemingly prioritizes a man at least in its name, Ice-Candy-Man slightly but successfully subvert discussion of patriarchy and rights women will, option and durability along with the feministic features of sympathy and becoming a mother.

Feminism & Diasphoric Femininity (ies) in Sidhwa’s Writings

On the other hand through An American Brat, Sidhwa can appropriately be known as a diasporic femininity’s author, as the protect of the novel explains that she “divides her time between the U.S where she instructed, and Lahore where she lived a part of life.” Problematizing the idea of a set identity (ies), Sidhwa symbolizes her woman character as having several stages of identity (ies). Searching the groups of marginalization in Pakistan as well as in U.S, she lives upon the techniques of the sexed subaltern for training organization. When checked out in this way, Sidhwa’s work is different as it explains the various kinds and stages of marginalization. Furthermore, the limitations between the oppressed and the oppressor are brought up into a talk. Situated in various public and regional roles, the females of color develop methods of preparing organization. While doing so, the factors of “normalcy” and “traditionally feminine” are re-conceptualized. It is this state policies of gendering, its significance and effects that are shown in the perspective of contemporary as well as classical feminism.

Bapsi Sidhwa at the 2008 Texas Book Festival, ...
Bapsi Sidhwa at the 2008 Texas Book Festival, Austin, Texas, United States. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA)

Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA)

The goal of feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA) research, therefore, is to appear the complicated, simple, and sometimes not so simple, methods in which regularly obtained-for-allocated gendered presumptions and hegemonic energy interaction are discursive created, continual, mentioned, and pushed in different situations and cultural contexts.
Such a new is not merely an educational de-construction of text messages and discuss for its own benefit, but comes from a recognition that the concerns addressed (in perspective of affecting public change) have content and phenomenological repercussions for categories of men and women in particular cultural contexts. A feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA) viewpoint is obviously interdisciplinary in characteristics. On the one side, it plays a role in (critical) terminology and discussion research a viewpoint advised by feminist research, and however, it indicates the effectiveness of terminology and discussion research for the research of feminist concerns in sex, gender and women research.

Why Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA)?

For over a several decades, in several divisions of linguistic and discussion research, there has been a serious shift towards clearly such as the phrase ‘feminist’ in various sub-fields by feminist experts managing in these places, such as ‘feminist stylistics’ (Mills 1995), ‘feminist pragmatics’ (Christie 2000), and ‘feminist discussion analysis’ (e.g., Kitzinger 2000). In all these places, the popular research has been recognized by an apparently impartial and purpose questions, which feminist experts managing within have pushed. Composing more usually about feminism and language concept in 1992, Cameron described that one of her primary aims was to ‘question the whole scholarly purpose tendency of linguistics and to prove how presumptions and techniques of linguistics are suggested as a reason in patriarchal philosophy and oppression’ (1992: 16). The need to declare and find a feminist viewpoint in linguistic and discussion research is of course part of what feminists in academie have for many decades belittled and desired to change beyond male-torrent restraints in the humanities, public sciences, and sciences (Gordon 1986; Harding 1986; Spender 1981).

But remain, one might quite reasonably ask, ‘But why a feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA)?’ – for Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), as a research system, is known for its brazenly governmental place and is worried with research of various kinds of public inequality and disfavor. Furthermore, the tab Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) bounds to feminist techniques in female’s research, which offered an inspiration to the new area in the Nineteen-eighties, has also sometimes been freely recognized (Van Dijk 1991). Needlessly to say, therefore, feminist speakers have managed quite gladly under the prescript of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) without requiring to banner a feminist viewpoint clearly.

Then a need for a particular feminist brand now, Why? First, the most straightforward reason is that many research in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) with a sex or gender concentrate embrace a crucial feminist view of sex or gender interaction – they are inspired by the need to change substantively the existing circumstances of these interaction. This said, it is value emphasizing that not all studies that cope with sex or gender in discussion are actually feminist in this critical feel.

More other, concerns indicated by some feminist experts about Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) invite pause for believed. Cameron wrote: ‘[CDA] is one of those broadly modern tasks whose creators and major results are nevertheless all immediately white-colored men (1998: 969–70), and Wilkinson and Kitzinger (1995) particularly review on these male’s failing to prefer feminists by stating their work.’ Free from doubt, most feminist research in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is not performed by ‘straight white-colored men’, but by a variety of feminist females in a variety of regional places, not all of whom are white-colored and heterosexual. With respect to Wilkinson and Kitzinger’s statement, one might see that more latest theorizing in some places of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) does recognize and consist of, among other crucial public systematic research, feminist performs (e.g., Chouliaraki & Fairclough, 1999). With regards to a feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA), however, we might imagine more than details of feminist experts, essential as that is. It is necessary within Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to find a clearly ‘feminist policies of articulation’ (to lend a expression from Wetherell, 1995, p. 141), by which I mean the need to be advised by feminist concepts and ideas in theorizing and examining the apparently innocent yet oppressive characteristics of sex or gender as an omni-relevant classification in many public techniques. Eckert, such as, has mentioned how sex or gender functions in a more persistent and complicated way than other techniques of oppression:

Whereas the energy interaction between men and women are just like those between taken over and subordinated sessions and cultural categories, the day-to-day context in which these energy interaction are performed out is quite different. It is not a social standard for each managing classification person to be joined up for life with participant of the middle-class or for every dark-colored person to be so paired up for lifestyle with a white-colored person. However, our conventional sex or gender ideology dictates just this type of connection between men and women (1989: 253-54).

Lastly, an end result of the insufficient self-naming has intended that increasing amounts of feminist crucial discussion experts spread across the planet have not completely structured them/ourselves to come together in a typical community. The concerns of collectivity and of getting team exposure are now essential for another purpose. Although Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in its beginning decades had a minor place within the more founded popular places in linguistics, its reputation over the decades has led to a switch towards the center and, as some have suggested, has itself become an orthodoxy (Billig 2000). Composing in the beginning 90’s, van Dijk, one of the primary experts in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), remarked:

For Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to become a popular strategy in the humanities and public sciences, we should expect a multitude of guides, thousands of content and meeting documents, and unique symposia or meeting sections on yearly bases’ (1991: 1).

After a several decades later, all these have been obtained and more: this publication is testimony to that, along with the increasing number of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) guides, content, and worldwide conventions, as well as CDA’s (Critical Discourse Analysis
) addition as a trained topic on many linguistics applications globally. Feminist exposure and speech in ‘mainstream’ Critical Discourse Analysis CDA scholarships then, remarkably, also has a appropriate political work.

Why a feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA)?

The ‘discursive turn’ in much public medical and humanities research, as we know, has given reputation to concerns of terminology and discussion. poststructuralism provides a seriously useful perspective of discussion as a site of battle, where causes of public (re)production and contestation are performed out. Within feminist scholarships, the discursive convert is shown in guides outside linguistics (e.g., Weedon, 1997; Wilkinson & Kitzinger, 1995) as well as within linguistics under the rubric of ‘gender and language’ research (e.g., Baxter, 2003; Area & Bucholtz, 1995; Wodak, 1997). Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA), with its concentrate on public rights and change of sex, is a appropriate participation to the increasing body of feminist discussion literary performs, particularly in sex and terminology where feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA) has filled a amazingly minor place.

Wilkinson and Kitzinger (1995, p. 5) have mentioned that there is really ‘no necessary coincidence between the passions of feminists and discussion analysts’, even though the likelihood for successful involvement prevails. With regards to feminism and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in particular, however, there is actually much overlap in circumstances of public emancipatory goals. Indeed, as opposed to feminist techniques that use illustrative discussion analytic techniques, feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA) has the benefits of managing, at the beginning, within a politically spent, informative system of discussion research. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA provides a regarded theorization of the connection between public techniques and discussion components (see, e.g., Wodak & She 2001, for various kinds of theorization), and a variety of resources and techniques for particular studies of contextualized uses of terminology in text messages and discuss. Further, under the offset umbrella of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) research, particular studies of various kinds of wide spread inequality have been designed (refer, e.g., to content in Discourse and Society). Feminist discussion college students can understand much about the interconnections between and the particularities of discursive techniques used in various kinds of public inequality and oppression that can nourish back into crucial feminist research and techniques for telecommuting saves gas. The wedding of feminism with Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), in sum, can generate a wealthy and highly effective governmental check for activity.

Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA) as a governmental viewpoint on sex, worried with demystifying the interrelationships of sex, energy, and philosophy in discussion, is to the research of text messages and discuss similarly, which provides a remedial to techniques that give preference to one language use over another (see Lazar, 2005a). Frameworks for research of discussion in Critical Discourse Analysis CDA also, much, recognize a multimodal aspect (e.g., Kress & van Leeuwen, 1996; Scollon, 2001) that is usually losing in other techniques in linguistics. Significantly in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) research, terminology is seriously evaluated together with other semiotic techniques like creation, templates, actions, and appears to be, which creates for an enhancing and informative research. Clearly, a multimodal perspective of discussion has great value for a natural feminist check of discursive designs of sex (Lazar, 1999, 2000).

Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis
English: One of the symbols of German Women’s movement (from the 1970s) Deutsch: Ein Logo der deutschen Frauenbewegung (aus den 70er Jahren) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Critical Discourse Analysis

Critical Discourse Analysis

Van Dijk (1998a) states that Critical Discourse Analysis, (CDA), is a area that is involved with learning and assessing published and verbal text messages to expose the discursive resources of capability, popularity, inequality and prejudice.  It investigates how these discursive resources are managed and duplicated within particular public, governmental and traditional situations.  In a similar line of thinking, Fairclough (1993) describes CDA as

discourse analysis which is designed to consistently discover often solid connections of causality and dedication between (a) discursive methods, events and text messages, and (b) broader public and social components, interaction and processes; to look at how such methods, activities and text messages occur out of and are ideologically formed by interaction of capability and battles over power; and to explore how the opacity of these connections between discourse and community is itself a aspect obtaining capability and hegemony. (p. 135)

To put it simply, CDA is designed at making clear the connections between discourse methods, public methods, and public components, connections that might be solid to the layperson.

Fairclough & Chuliaraki (1999) assume that CDA has a appropriate participation to create and declare that, “the previous 20 years or so have been an interval of powerful financial public modification on an international scale” (p. 30). Although these changes are due to particular activities by individuals the changes have been recognized as “part of nature” (p. 4), that is, the developments have been recognized as organic and not due to individuals causal activities. The latest financial and public changes, according to Fairclough & Chuliaraki (1999), “are to a important level . . . changes in the terminology, and discourses” (p. 4), thus, CDA can help by theorizing changes and developing an attention “of what is, how it has come to be, and what it might become, on the reasons for which individuals may be able to create and rebuilding their lives” (p. 4). With such a purpose in thoughts, Chuliaraki and Fairclough (1999) declare that

Critical Discourse Analysis, of relationships places out to demonstrate that the semiotic and terminology functions of the relationships are constantly linked with what is going on culturally, and what is going on culturally is indeed going on partially or definitely semiotically or linguistically. Put in a different way, CDA constantly maps relationships of modification between the representational and non-symbolic, between discussion and the non-discursive. (p. 113)

The first systematic concentrate of Fairclough’s three-part design is written text. Research of text involves language analysis with regards to language, sentence structure, semantics, the sound system, and cohesion-organization above the phrase stage (Fairclough, 1995b: 57).
With in language investigation sementically there are most impotand things lexical investigation of text and sementic investigation as well (Fairclough, 1995b: 57-58). Fairclough also argues that some text having multidimensional meaning. Some texts having also needs investigation at the level of phonetics, that changed by him again.

Language analysis is involved with presences as well as absences in text messages that could consist of “representations, groups of personal, constructions of personal identification or personal relations” (Fairclough, 1995: 58).

Nederlands: CDA-logo
Nederlands: CDA-logo (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Themes in Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus

Themes in Doctor Faustus

Themes are the universal and fundamental ideas presented in a literary work. There are lots of significant themes in Doctor Faustus.

Flesh and Spirit

The conflict between flash and spirit is strongly depicted in Doctor Faustus. Flash is related with human body lust and desires while spirit deals with religion and God. Flash consider worldly pleasures more important while spirit resistance against those desires. Faustus values flesh move them spirit.

 Good and Evil

Good and evil are the most important issue presented in Doctor Faustus. Conflict between Good and evil makes a man hesitant, he remains confused like Faustus that either he have to adopt good or evil what way is good for him and what way sis dangerous for him.

 Pride and Sin

Pride and sin is the most important factor in the downfall of Faustus. Pride belongs to the seven deadly sins, considering himself better from all, Faustus falls in pride and quickly adopt sin to fulfill his lusty desires which leads him towards hell.

 Salvation and Damnation

According to Christian religion salvation is necessary for a Christian to save from hell. It one’s fail to get salvation, he will be eternally damned. Salvation actually deals with the repentance, but the Faustus refuses to repent which causes his damnation and he is punished forever in the hell.

Knowledge and Wisdom

Faustus has a great lust for knowledge. He has studies all the branches of knowledge including divinity but he feels the himself still hungry about the knowledge that’s why he adopts the forbidden knowledge which is called black art. It was his failure of wisdom while adopting the forbidden knowledge. Faustus was not true towards life because he was valuing his knowledge on his wisdom.

 Man’s Lust and Limitations of Power

Man like Doctor Faustus has so many desires like lust for wealth, lust for beauty, lust for power etc. But when he adopts the wrong way to fulfill his desires he cannot be succeeded. Like Faustus sells him soul for fulfilling his desires but he comes to know about his limitations as a man when he used to just amuse and entertain dukes for showing his skill of black art. He cannot do something like God which shows the limitations of power.


Another theme in Doctor Faustus is that of greed like other heroes of Marlow’s heroes forget their responsibilities to God and other creatures instead they try to hid their weak character. Faustus was in a tragic cycle of   greed and despair.

Tragic Hero

A tragic is a character that the audience thinks with despite his / her action that would indicate the contrary. Faustus in the play not the mere shell of a man existing only represents the evil in the world. He is a human beings with full of emotions and thoughts. Although the Doctor Faustus himself does not care of humanity.

Doctor Faustus (film)
Doctor Faustus (film) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

What is Plagiarism?

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What is Plagiarism?

Etymology of the word “plagiarism”

In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius (literally kidnapper), to denote someone stealing someone else’s work, was pioneered by Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had “kidnapped his verses.” This use of the word was introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist Ben Jonson, to describe as a plagiary someone guilty of literary theft.

The derived form plagiarism was introduced into English around 1620.


According to the Merriam-Webster On-Line Dictionary, to “plagiarize” means

1. To steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own

2. To use (another’s production) without crediting the source

3. To commit literary theft: to present as new and original, an idea or product, derived from an existing source.


Stanford sees plagiarism as “use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person’s original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form”

The practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own is plagiarism.


So what is plagiarism?


1. Plagiarism can occur on any academic assignment, not just papers.

2. Plagiarism is not limited to copying other peoples’ work, but includes failing to cite your sources properly or revising others’ work to make it sound like your own.

3. If you don’t use quotation marks correctly, you are plagiarizing! If you don’t use footnotes correctly, you are plagiarizing! If you copy someone else’s work and try to mask it by changing words or sentences around, you are plagiarizing!

But can words and ideas really be stolen?

According to U.S. law, the answer is yes.  In the United States and  many other countries, the expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions.  Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in some media (such as a book or a computer file).

All of the following are considered plagiarism

1. Turning in someone else’s work as your own
2. Copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
3. Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
4. Giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
5. Changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit
6. Copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not.



Submitting another’s work, word-for-word, as one’s own


Contains significant portions of text from a single source without alterations


Changing key words and phrases but retaining the essential content of the source


Paraphrases from multiple sources, made to fit together


Borrows generously from the writer’s previous work without citation


Combines perfectly cited sources with copied passages without citation


Mixes copied material from multiple sources

8. 404 ERROR

Includes citations to non-existent or inaccurate information about sources


Includes proper citation to sources but the paper contains almost no original work


Includes proper citation, but relies too closely on the text’s original wording and/or structure



Reading the following line, can you guess the meaning of the term self-plagiarism.

“Self-plagiarism involves dishonesty but not intellectual theft.“ (David B. Resnik)

Self-plagiarism (also known as “recycling fraud”) is the reuse of significant, identical, or nearly identical portions of one’s own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or without citing the original work. It is common for university researchers to rephrase and republish their own work, tailoring it for different academic journals and newspaper articles, to disseminate their work to the widest possible interested public. One of the functions of the process of peer review in academic writing is to prevent this type of “recycling”.


The concept of “self-plagiarism” has been challenged as self-contradictory. Stephanie J. Bird argues that self-plagiarism is a misnomer, since by definition plagiarism concerns the use of others’ material. Bird identifies that in an educational context, “self-plagiarism” refers to the case of a student who resubmits “the same essay for credit in two different courses.”


HEC’s Plagiarism Eradication System

HEC’s goal is to combat plagiarism effectively in an academic environment in all institutions while ensuring that the students and academicians know that stealing someone’s intellectual property is unethical and can lead to serious consequences. For this, IT division has sought for technological solution and acquired an online software tool to assist in identifying the plagiarized material from documents. The software tool, iThenticate and Turnitin are amongst the leading software used globally for such purposes. The facility is provided to all higher education institutions across the country and is in use since 2007. This web based service is available at http://www.turnitin.com and 1000 licenses for each of the universities/ institutes have been acquired and handed over to teaching faculty, post graduate students and researchers in order to address the issue at the grass root level. A total of one hundred and twenty seven (127) HEIs have been provided with this facility. At present there are 7170 instructors registered with this acquired services, whereas the number of students are more than 15,000. During past five (05) years, nearly 150,000 articles and/ or documents have been submitted to generate the Originality Report.

How do these software help?

1. Educators can check students’ work for improper citation.
2. Helps instructors in saving time spent on assessing written work and marking it accordingly.

How TO benefit from hec plagiarism prevention service?

In order to get benefit from HEC Plagiarism Prevention Service, online service is available at:




A “citation” is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:

1. Information about the author

2. The title of the work
3. The name and location of the company that published your copy of the source
4. The date your copy was published
5. The page numbers of the material you are borrowing



Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situations almost always require citation:

1. Whenever you use quotes

2. Whenever you paraphrase
3. Whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed
4. Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another
5. Whenever someone else’s work has been critical in developing your own ideas.

 Sanctions for student plagiarism

In the academic world, plagiarism by students is usually considered a very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment, the entire course, or even being expelled from the institution. Generally, the punishment increases as a person enters higher institutions of learning. For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases in which a student commits severe plagiarism (e.g., submitting a copied piece of writing as original work), suspension or expulsion is likely.

How to avoid plagiarism?


The acknowledgement that something came from another source. The following sentence properly attributes an idea to its original author:

Jack Bauer, in his article “Twenty-Four Reasons not to Plagiarize,” maintains that cases of plagiarists being expelled by academic institutions have risen dramatically in recent years due to an increasing awareness on the part of educators.


A list of sources used in preparing a work.


A short, formal indication of the source of information or quoted material.


Notes at the end of a paper acknowledging sources and providing additional references or information.


Notes at the bottom of a paper acknowledging sources or providing additional references or information.


Quote Your Sources Correctly!


Some other ways to avoid plagiarism are:

1. Paraphrase Your Sources!

2. Proofread!

3. Ask a Librarian or Your Professor!

4. Use the Library’s Online Resources and Tutorials!

5. Commit Yourself to Not Plagiarizing!



1. The presentation of the work of another person as one’s own or without proper acknowledgement is said to be PLAGIARISM.
2. Plagiarism is unethical and can lead to serious consequences.
3. People who are found guilty of this offence are punished duly.
4. Pakistan combats plagiarism with the help of HEC.
5. The best way to stop Plagiarism is to “Commit yourself to NOT Plagiarizing!”

By: Emanuel Anthony




Plagiarism (EP)
Plagiarism (EP) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)