Archive | September, 2011

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A Passage to India Significance of The Title

Posted on 29 September 2011 by Aajiz

A Passage to India E.M Forster

The title of A Passage to India is a reference to a poem by Walt Whitman, “A Passage to India”. In the poem, Whitman takes the reader on a journey through time and space. India presents itself as legendary land that inspired Christopher Columbus to find a westward from Europe to India, a route that ended with the discovery of the Americas. While India celebrated as an ancient land, rich in history, America celebrated as a force for innovation. Whitman sees both as caught in an inexorable push toward globalization, where all countries attracted to the same drive toward progress. As he says,

Passage to India!
Lo, soul! seest thou not God’s purpose from the first?
The earth to be spann’d, connected by net-work,
The people to become brothers and sisters,
The races, neighbors, to marry and be given in marriage,
The oceans to be cross’d, the distant brought near,
The lands to be welded together
. (lines 31-35)

Although Whitman is typically exuberant, Forster’s novel examines the dark side of what might be called Whitman’s Song of the Global Self. Revelation Forster costs and contradictions of the British Empire, revealing that the dream of “land [...] welded” might just be a cynical mantra of taking over other countries. Although Whitman used interracial marriage – “races, neighbors, to marry and be a man” – an international symbol of harmony, Forster’s novel shows how even a hint of interracial attraction, not to mention friendship, deep in the race to inflame animosities.

A Passage to India

Whitman in his poem ends with the track, citing the example of the great explorers – and the great empire builders – to go “pass”, the other amazing discoveries. But Forster’s novel asks us to question the reasons for traveling, especially if it means applying to all people of the state of a foreign power.

“A Passage to India” suggests that there is more than a ‘passage’ -.. There are more than one perspective to see in India, and there is more than one way to interpret the disorder Forster’s novel is only one way to do Passage, just as the passage of time in the lighthouse, showing how the world and nature can cause people to change.

A Passage to India

A Passage to India

A Passage to India (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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A Passage to India Themes Motifs Symbols

Posted on 29 September 2011 by Aajiz

Themes

The difficulty of English and India Friendship

Passage to India begins and ends by asking whether it is possible for an Englishman and an Indian would be ever friends, at least in the context of British colonialism. Forster uses it as a framework for exploring the general issue of political control of British India in a more personal level, through the friendship between Aziz and Fielding. At the beginning of the novel, Aziz is contemptuous of English, who wish to consider or ignore entirely comical. However, Aziz feels intuitive connection with Moore in the mosque there is possibility of friendship with Fielding. In the first half of the novel, Fielding and Aziz are a positive model of liberal humanism: Forster suggests that British rule in India could be successful and respectful, if only the English and the Indians treated as Fielding and Aziz treat each other as worthy, they connect through sincerity, intelligence and good will.

However, after the charge of completion of the novel Adèle Aziz tried his assault and the later denial of this accusation at the trial-Aziz and Fielding’s friendship falls apart. The strains of the relationship are of external nature, as Aziz and Fielding both suffer from the tendency of their cultures. Aziz has a tendency to let your imagination run away with him and let it harden in a suspicious resentment. Fielding suffers from literalism and rationalism English for real feelings blind Aziz and Fielding do too farfetched to achieved through conversations or letters Aziz. In addition, their communities and English separated by their mutual stereotypes. As you can see at the end of the novel, even the landscape of India seems to oppress their friendship. Forster’s last vision of possibility of English-India friendship is a pessimist, but conditioned by possibility of friendship on English soil, or after liberation of India. Like the landscape seems to imply the end of the novel, like a friendship could be possible over time, but “not yet”.

Unit of All Living Things

Although the main characters in A Passage to India tend to be Christian or Muslim, Hinduism also plays a major theme of the novel. The aspect of Hinduism is particularly concerned Forster ideals of religion of all living beings, from the humblest to the highest, united in love as one. This view of the universe seems to offer redemption through mystical India, individual differences disappear in a peaceful community that does not recognize hierarchies. Individual guilt and the plot abandoned in favor of attention to higher spiritual matters. Professor Godbole, the Hindu visible in the novel, is a spokesman for the idea of ​​Forster of unity of all living things. Godbole is one away from the drama of the plot, not to take sides with the recognition that all involved in a lot of Marabar. Moore also shows the opening of this aspect of Hinduism.

Although she is Christian, his experience in India made its unhappy with what she perceives as the smallness of Christianity. Ms. Moore seems to feel a great sense of connection to all living creatures, as shown by his respect for the wasp in her bedroom.

Yet, through Mrs. Moore, Forster also shows that vision of unity of all living things could be daunting. As we can see experience of Mrs. Moore’s Echo is all part of “Boum” in Maraba, as the unit of a unit, but also makes all parts of the universe the same, the realization that the end is indirectly kill Mrs. Moore. Godbole does not disturb the idea that denial is an inevitable result, when all things linked together as one. Mrs. Moore, however, lose interest in global relations after imagine the lack of differences in horror. Moreover, while Forster, generally supports the idea of ​​Hindu unity of all living things, also suggests that there may problems with it. Godbole, such as, seem to even recognize that something, even if only a stone excluded from vision of unity if the vision would be together.

“Mess” of India / The “Muddle” of India

Forster makes difference between the ideas carefully to strike “a mess” and the “secret” is the Passage to India. “Mess” has connotations of a serious disorder and confusion, while a “mystery” suggests a mystical, spiritual power of an organized plan, which is higher than a man. Fielding, who serves as the main representative of Forster’s novel, he admits that India is a “mess”, while figures such as Mrs. Moore and Godbole look at the mystery of India. Mess that is India, the novel seems to work from scratch: a rural landscape and the architecture is without form, and the flora and fauna identification challenge. The confusion and quality of the environment reflected composition of the native population of India, which mixed with a mess of different religious, ethnic, linguistic and regional groups.

India Adela confusing mess most, in fact, the cave so annoying Marabar events could be seen as manifestation of this confusion. By the end of the novel, we are not sure yet what really happened in the caves. Forster suggests that Adela outsourced to feelings and confused Ronny caves, and that suddenly experiences these feelings as something outside himself. Mess India is also influenced by Aziz and Fielding’s friendship, because of their good intentions derailed by the chaos of cultural signals.

While Forster is in tune with India and Indians in the novel, his description of the overwhelming mess of India is responsible for the way many Western writers have discussed the works of his time in Eastern Europe. As noted critic Edward Said has pointed out, these writers Orientalizing ‘”between East and West, and ability of logic is clear, and, more generally, has described domination of the East West reasonable or even necessary.

The Negligence of British Colonial Government

Despite Passage to India is in many ways a very symbolic, text, even mystical, but also intended to a real documentation of the attitude of the British colonial authorities in India. Forster devotes much of the novel that characterize the different attitudes typical of the Indians English so that they control. Forster’s satire is more difficult in English, which he describes as overwhelmingly racist, arrogant and condescending to the native population with a vengeance. Some of the English in the novel are as bad as women, but more often Forster English identifies men who, though condescending and unable to relate to each Indian, are largely well-intentioned and has invested in their work. Of all the criticisms of Forster on how to govern British India, however, does not seem to affect the right of the British Empire to rule India.

He suggests that the British would be well served by being friendly and more sympathy for the Indians, as they live, but it is not suggesting that Britain should abandon India directly. Even this minor criticism is never openly stated in the novel, but implicitly by the biting satire.

Motifs

Patterns are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help develop and communicate the key themes of the text.

The Eco

Echo caves Marabar begins: first, Mrs. Moore and Adela, than hearing the echo, and obsessed with this in the coming weeks. ECHO’s voice sound “Boum”, again regardless of the noise or utterance is initially made. This denial of the difference reflects the flip side of scary seemingly positive outlook on Hindu marriage and unity of all living things. If all the people and things change the same thing, so it can distinguish between good and evil. No system of values ​​may exist. Echo sores Mrs. Moore until her death, when he was to renounce his beliefs, and care not about human relationships. Adela, however, avoids using the echo at the end of his message to help you understand the impersonality Aziz’s innocence.

Eastern and Western Architecture

Forster devotes much time to detail the architecture of East and West in A Passage to India. Three architectural structures, if one is naturally describes three sections of the book “Mosque”, “Cuevas” and “Temple”. Forster presents the aesthetics of East and Western structures as sign of the differences in cultures . In India, architecture confused and formless: indoor outdoor garden mix, land and buildings compete with each other, structures and seems incomplete or boring. As such architecture, India reflects the confusion in India itself and that Forster sees as the Indians of the characteristic of the lack of attention to form and logic. Sometimes, however, Forster has a positive view of Indian architecture. The mosque in Part I and Part III of the temple represent the promise of opening Indian mysticism, and friendship. Western architecture, in turn, described in Fielding stop in Venice on the way to England.

Venice structures, Fielding considered as representative of Western architecture in general, the shape and proportion of honor and complete the land they built. Fielding bed in this architecture for the accuracy of self-Western reason, an order which, he complains, his Indian friends do not recognize or appreciate.

Godbole’s Song

At the end of Fielding’s tea party, Godbole sings in English for visitors to a Hindu song in which God declares a dairy to reach her or her people. The chorus of “Come! Come” appears along Passage to India, reflecting the nationwide call for salvation of something bigger than oneself. After the song, Godbole admits that God never comes to dairy products. The song very discouraged Ms. Moore, paving the way for his later spiritual apathy, their simultaneous awareness of a spiritual presence and lack of faith in spiritualism as a redemptive force. Godbole apparently referring to his song as a message or lesson that recognition of the possible existence of a figure of God can bring to the world and erode the differences, after all, Godbole sings the part of young dairy. Forster uses the chorus of the song Godbole, “Come! Come,” suggesting that redemption of India is yet to come.

Symbols

Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.

The Marabar Caves

Caves Marabar represent everything that is foreign to nature. The caves are more than anything in the world and has the void and emptiness, a void in the ground literally. They defy both English and Indian to serve as guides for themselves and their strange beauty and menace destabilizes visitors. The caves of quality “foreign also the power to make visitors such as Mrs. Moore and Adela to face the parties themselves or the universe they have not yet recognized. It reduces everything to the caves echoed causes Ms. Moore to see the dark side of spirituality decreasing involvement in the world of relationships and a growing ambivalence about God. Adela confronts the shame and embarrassment in her awareness that she and Ronny are not really attracted to each other and could be attracted to someone. In this sense, the two caves to destroy the sense of reducing all expressions of the same sound and display or to say the unsalable, the aspects of the universe, visitors to the caves have not yet considered.

The Green Bird

As soon as Adela and Ronny, for the first time, the Chapter VII of the investor, find a green bird sitting on a tree above them. Neither can positively identify the bird. For Adela, bird symbol of quality throughout India unidentified: just when you think you understand every aspect of ‘India, the perspective changes or disappears. In this sense, the green bird symbolizes the chaos in India. Any other way, the birds of different points of tension in English and the Indians. England obsessed with information, literalness, and the denomination, and use these tools as a means of obtaining and maintaining power. Indians, however, are more alert to nuances, understated, and the emotions behind the words. Although England to need labeling things, the Indians recognize that the labels can blind to important details and differences. Unidentified green bird suggests incompatibility to the English obsession with classification and order of self-moving quality of Indian territory is in fact “a hundred India’s”, which defies labels and understanding.

The Wasp

The wasp appears several times in A Passage to India, usually with the Hindu vision of unity in all living things. The wasp is generally portrayed as the weakest creäture in Hindu integrate their vision of universal unity. Ms. Moore is closely associated with the wasp, which she finds one in his room and quietly enjoyed it. His account of the wasp peaceful describes his openness to the idea of ​​the Hindu community, and mysticism and the indefinable quality of India in general. But as the wasp is the lowest creäture Hindu view, it also represents the limits of the Hindu vision. The vision is not a panacea, but simply an opportunity for unity and understanding of India.

A Passage to India

A Passage to India (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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A Passage to India Analysis of Major Characters

Posted on 29 September 2011 by Aajiz

A Passage to India Major Characters

Dr. Aziz

In A Passage To India, Aziz seems to a mess of contradictions and extremes, embodiment of the concept of Forster’s “root” in India. Aziz is impetuous and fickle, changing views and concerns quickly and without warning, from one moment to another. His mood swings back and forth between extremes of elation to despair childish one minute the next day. Aziz himself seems able to change careers and talents, serving as both physician and poet, during a passage to India. Aziz is a bit younger grades, evidence by a sense of humor, which leans toward joke, balanced by his attitude of irony to his superiors in Britain.

Forster, but no obvious stereotypes, encourages us to see many features Aziz that the characteristics of the Indians in general. Aziz, like many of his friends do not like the feeling honest, frank and direct, preferring to communicate through confidences under the words, and discourse. Aziz makes sense that morality is really the social code. That feels so no moral scruples or visit prostitutes, read mail, both private Fielding, as their intentions are good and he knows that he will captured. Instead of living simply in social codes, Aziz guide their work with a code that is almost religious, as we see in extreme hospitality. In addition, Aziz, like many other Indians, the struggles with the problem of English in India. On the one hand, enjoy some of the modernizing influences that the West has brought to India on the other hand, believes that presence of English degrades and oppresses his people.

Despite its contradictions, Aziz indeed a character of love and affection is often based on intuitive connections, as Mrs. Moore and Fielding. Although the ability to accommodate Forster Aziz imaginative sympathy for such a good feature, we see that the imagination can also be misleading Aziz. Deep Aziz feels criminal to Fielding in the aftermath of his trial is due to the abuse of fiction and intuition. Aziz does not stop to assess the facts, but rather follow his heart with exception of other methods, an approach that is sometimes wrong.

Many critics have argued that Forster describes Aziz and many other Indian characters flattering. While the author is certainly favorable to the Indians, which is sometimes present as incompetent, bonded or child. These criticisms are not valid to question the realism of Forster’s A Passage To India novel, but did not, in general, corrupt his exploration of possibility of friendly relations between the Indians and English, without a doubt the central preoccupation of A Passage To India novel.

Cyril Fielding

Of all the characters in the A Passage To India novel, Fielding is clearly the most associated with Forster himself. Among the English Chandrapore, Fielding is by far the most successful in developing and maintaining relationships with the Indians. Although it is an educator, it is less comfortable in the teacher-student interaction is one-on-one conversation with another person. The latter style is a model of liberal humanism and Forster Fielding to treat the world as group of people who can connect through mutual respect, courtesy and intelligence.

Fielding, these points of view, represents the greatest threat to mentality of the English language in India. He trained the Indians as people, to identifies the free movement of opinion has the potential to destabilize the British colonial power. In addition, Fielding is a little ‘patience on racial classification, which is so central to taking on India English. He respects his friendship with Aziz, no longer breed with members of the Alliance, and disintegration of loyalty, which threatens the solidarity England. Finally, Fielding “Travel Light”, as he says he does not believe in marriage, but favors instead of friendship. Answering questions in itself an indirect domestic conventions, based on British sense of “Englishness”. Fielding refuses to romanticize home in England, or respect the role of wife or mother, away from the British, who made place after the incident Adela in the caves.

Fielding character changes following Aziz’s trial. Tired of the Indians and English. English sensibility, such as the need for the proportion and reason, increasingly important and start the grill against Aziz Indian sensibility. At the end of A Passage to India, Forster seems to find with Fielding less. While Aziz is a nice, if you fail, the character until the end of the A Passage To India novel, Fielding becomes less sympathetic in increasing identification and similarity with English.

A Passage To India Leading Lady

Adela Quested

In A Passage To India, Adela arrives in India, Mrs. Moore, and quite comfortable, his character developed in parallel with Mrs. Moore. Adela, as the oldest of the English language, is an individualistic thinker and educated free of charge. These trends will lead him, as if to bring to Mrs. Moore, and questioning the behavior of standard English to the Indians. Adela tendency to openly question the standard practices makes its resistance to the stigma and, , take a married Ronny and the stigma of a typical English colonial wife. Both Mrs. Moore and Adela, hope to see the “real India”, rather organized tourist version. However, while want of Mrs. Moore be confirmed with a genuine interest and affection for the Indians, Adela apparently do not want to see the “real India” is simply a rational explanation. He puts his mind, but not his heart, and will never be in contact with the Indians.

Adela Caves Marabar experience making a crisis of rationalism against spiritualism. Although Adela character changes dramatically in a few days after the alleged assault, his testimony in the process represents a return to old Adela, the only difference is that he is in trouble no doubt it was originally. Adela begins to feel that his attack, and an eerie echo of his following, represent something outside his normal rational understanding. He offended by his inability to articulate her experience. He discovers that it will not, and does not like India, and all of a sudden fear that he not be able to love anyone. Adela is a full realization of the damage he has done Aziz and others, but feel paralyzed, can not do the wrongs he has done.

However, Adela disinterested support his hard fate, after the trial-an approach that wins his friend Fielding, who sees it as a courageous woman, and not a traitor to his race.

A Passage To India Supporting Characters

Mrs. Moore

As a character, Moore has a dual role in A Passage to India, which operates on two levels. First is a literal character, but as the A Passage To India novel progresses, it becomes a symbolic presence. On the literal level, Ms. Moore has a good heart, a religious woman, elderly with mystical inclinations. The early days of his visit to India have been successful, as it connects with India and Indians at an intuitive level. Then Adela is too cerebral, Ms. Moore based success in your heart to make connections during his visit. On the other hand, in the literal level, the character of Mrs. Moore human limitations: their experience makes Marabar apathetic and even an underestimate, since it simply leaves India without taking account of evidence of innocence or supervise Aziz marriage and Adele Ronny.

When he left, however, Ms. Moore is primarily focused on the symbolic level. Although she has human frailties, has become the symbol of spiritual openness and the ideal of blind race Forster sees as a solution to the problems of India. The name of Mrs. Moore was closely associated with Hinduism, Hindu, in particular the principle of oneness and unity of all living beings. This symbolic aspect to Mrs. Moore might even make her the heroine of A Passage To India novel, the only person capable to English in close contact with the Hindu view of the unit. However, the actions of Ms. Moore literal sudden abandonment of India, they do less heroic.

Ronny Heaslop

In A Passage To India Ronny does not change character in the novel, but the emphasis is on changing Forster happened before the novel begins when Ronny arrival in India. When Mrs. Moore and Adela note the difference between Ronny knew in England and British India. Ronny Forster uses character and the changes it has undergone something of a case study, exploration of the herd mentality that English settlers restrictions “imposed on each personality. All tastes are really dumbed before to meet Ronny standards of the group. devalues ​​intelligence and learning in England by the “wisdom” gained through years of experience in India. The openness that raised and replaced by an Indian court. Briefly , the likes of Ronny, opinions, and even their speech is no longer his, but the age, it seems wiser to British officials in India.

This type of group think is what ultimately makes the face with both his mother Adela and Ronny, Mrs. Moore.

But Ronny is not the worst of English in India, and Forster is a bit of sympathy in his portrayal of him. Ronny ambition to increase the ranks of British India has not destroyed its natural goodness, like perverts. Ronny worries about their jobs and the Indians that works, but only to the extent that, in turn, reflect upon it. Ronny Forster in A Passage To India flawed as the colonial system failure, not yours.

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A Passage to India Character List

Posted on 29 September 2011 by Aajiz

Dr. Aziz – intelligent, emotional Chandrapore’s Indian doctor. Aziz tries to make friends with Adela Quested, Mrs. Moore, and Cyril Fielding. Later, Adela falsely accuses Aziz of attempted rape after an expedition to the caves Marabar, but the charges dropped after Adela’s testimony at trial. Aziz likes to write and recite poetry. He has three children, his wife died several years before the start of the novel. Read in-depth analysis of Dr. Aziz.
Cyril Fielding – The Director of Government College near Chandrapore. Fielding is an independent man who believes in educating the Indians as individuals, a much more sympathetic to the indigenous population than most of the British in India. Fielding befriends Dr Aziz which is side physician the rest English in Chandrapore when Aziz accused attempted rape Adela Quested. Read in-depth analysis of Cyril Fielding.
Miss Adela Quested – A young, intelligent, curious, but not repressed English. Adela trips to India with Mrs. Moore to decide or not to marry Mrs. Moore’s son Ronny. Miss Quested open mind begins with desires to learn about the Indians and see the real India. Later, she falsely accuses Aziz of attempted rape in Marabar caves.

Mrs. Moore – An elderly woman who travels the English in India with Adela Quested. Mrs Moore wants to see the country and we hope that Adela is going to marry her son Ronny. Ms. Moore befriends Dr. Aziz, who she feels a spiritual connection with him. It was a disturbing experience with the strange echoes in the caves Marabar, which makes it feel a sense of fear, especially in relationships. Ms. Moore is quick to return to England, and died at sea during the crossing. Read in-depth analysis of Mrs. Moore.

Ronny Heaslop – the son of Mrs. Moore, a judge at Chandrapore. Ronny, even if he trained, and an open heart, has become a prejudiced and intolerant of the Indians since he moved to India, as standard in most of the British to serve there. Ronny was briefly engaged to Adela Quested, even if it does not seem particularly keen on him.

Read in-depth analysis of Ronny Heaslop.

Mr. Turton – a collector, a man who dominates the Chandrapore. Mr. Turton is intrusive and hard, but the more discreet than his wife.

Mrs. Turton – Turton wife. In his interaction with the Indians, is the stereotypical image of the quintessential novel of Mrs. Turton snobs, rude wife, and English colonial prejudices.

Mr. McBryde – The Superintendent of Police Chandrapore, who developed a theory that seeks to explain inferiority of the darker skinned races of skin. McBryde, if condescending, actually shows a greater tolerance for the indigenous English than most do. Not surprisingly, they are friendly and Fielding AcquaIN distances. McBryde is against mentality of the English group Chandrapore when divorced from his wife after having had an affair with Miss Derek.

Major Callendar – Chandrapore civil surgeon, Dr. Aziz superior. Major Callendar was an arrogant, cruel, intolerant and ridiculous.

Professor Godbole – A Hindu Brahmin who teaches at the College of Fielding. Godbole is very spiritual and reluctant to engage in human affairs.

Hamidullah – Dr. Aziz’s uncle and friend. Hamidullah, who educated at Cambridge, believes that friendship between Englishmen and Indians are more likely be in England than in India. Hamidullah was a close friend of Fielding and Fielding, Aziz met before.

Ali Mahmood – A lawyer friend of Aziz, who is deeply pessimistic about the English.

Nawab Bahadur – the main promoter Chandrapore. Nawab Bahadur is a rich, generous and loyal to England. When he tries Aziz, however, renounces the title in protest.

Dr. Panna Lal – A low-born doctor and rival Hindu Aziz. Dr. Panna Lal intends to testify at trial against Aziz, but pardon after Aziz is free.

Stella Moore – daughter of Mrs. Moore from his second marriage. Stella married later Fielding’s novel.

Ralph Moore – the son of the second marriage of Mrs. Moore, a sensitive young man.

Miss Derek – A young English woman working for a wealthy Indian family, often driving their car. Miss Derek relaxed and has a good sense of humor, but many English Chandrapore to blame him, given his presence inappropriate.

Amritrao – The lawyer defending Aziz during his trial. Amritrao is a powerful anti-British husband.

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A Passage to India Plot Overview and Summary

Posted on 29 September 2011 by Aajiz

Two English, Miss Adela Quested young and the elderly Mrs. Moore, the trip to India. Adela expected to engaged to Mrs. Moore’s son, Ronny, a British magistrate in the Indian city of Chandrapore. Adela and Mrs. Moore each hoping to see the real India during their visit, rather than cultural institutions imported by the British.
At the same time, Aziz, a young Muslim doctor in India, is increasingly frustrated by the bad treatment it receives in the hands of England. Aziz is particularly angry with Major Callendar, the civil surgeon, who has a tendency to invite Aziz for trivial reasons in the middle of dinner. Aziz, and two of his friends caught, and Hamidullah, Mahmoud Ali, a lively debate about the fact that India can become friends with the British in India. That night, Mrs. Moore and Aziz you happen to bump into them while exploring the local mosque, and the two became friendly. Aziz touched and surprised that the person treats him as an English friend.
Mr. Turton, the Collector Chandrapore government, a party to Adela and Mrs. Moore might the opportunity to meet some of the largest and richest Indians in the city. In the event, which happens to rather clumsy, Adela meets Cyril Fielding, director of the School of Government Chandrapore. Fielding, Adela impressed by the friendliness open to Indians, she and Mrs. Moore invited to tea with him and Professor Godbole Hindus. At the request of Adele Fielding invites Aziz to tea.
At tea, Aziz and Fielding soon made friends, and is by far the most pleasant in the afternoon until Heaslop Ronny arrives and abruptly ended the party. Later that evening, Adela tells Ronny that he decided not to marry him. But that night, two cars in an accident and emotion of the event due to change Adela idea of ​​a marriage.
Soon after, Aziz organizes an expedition to the nearby caves Marabar for those who attended the Fielding tea. Professor Fielding and Godbole miss the train Marabar, so Aziz continued alone with the two women, Adela and Mrs. Moore. Inside one of the caves, Ms. Moore disturbed by the small space, which is very popular due to Aziz, and the strange echo that seems to translate every sound that makes the sound “boom”.
Aziz, Adela, and instructions are in the upper caves, while Ms. Moore is waiting below. Adela, suddenly realizing that she does not love Ronny, asks Aziz if more than one wife-a question that is offensive. Aziz storm in a cave, and when he returned, Adela away. Aziz scolds instructions to lose Adela, and the guide escaped. Aziz finds Adela broken binoculars and head down the hill. Back to the picnic site, Aziz expected Fielding. Aziz is indifferent to learn that Adela made an emergency car Chandrapore he delighted to see Fielding. Back to Chandrapore however Aziz stopped unexpectedly. He accused of attempted rape Adela Quested while she was in the caves, a charge based on a claim made Adela.
Fielding, faith Aziz to innocent, Angers whole of British India by joining the Indians to defend Aziz. In the weeks before trial. Racial tensions between Indians and English increased considerably the rocket Ms. Moore distracted and miserable because of his memory of the echo in the cave, and because of his impatience with the upcoming trial. Adela was emotional and ill, she also seems to suffer from an echo in his mind. Ronny tired of the lack of support Ms. Moore Adela, and it agreed that Ms. Moore will be back in England sooner than expected. Mrs. Moore died on the way back to England, but not before she discovers that there is no “real India”, but rather a complex mosaic of India’s.
At trial Aziz, Adela, under oath, when asked about what happened in the caves. Surprisingly, she says she made a mistake: Aziz is not the person or thing that attacked her in the cave. Aziz is free, Fielding and Adela companions at Government College, where she spent the next few weeks. Fielding begins to meet Adela, recognition of his bravery order to speak against his peers Aziz innocent. Ronny breaks her engagement to Adela, and she returned to England.
Aziz is angry, however, that friendship would Adela Fielding, after nearly destroyed the life of Aziz, and the friendship of two men to suffer accordingly. Fielding then sails visit to England. Aziz claims he was with England and that he plans to move to a place where he does not need to addressed.
Two years later, Aziz became the Chief Medical Rajah, and Mau, the Hindu region of several hundred miles away Chandrapore. Fielding has married Adela heard that soon after his return to England. Aziz is now bitterly hate all the English. One day, walking through the ancient temple of his three children, faces Fielding and his brother-in-law. Aziz surprised to learn that the name of his brother-in-law Ralph Moore, and shows that Fielding has married Adela Quested is not, but Stella Moore, Mrs. Moore’s daughter from his second marriage.
Aziz befriends Ralph. After he accidentally runs into his boat Fielding, Aziz renewed his friendship with Fielding as well. The two men go for a last trip together before leaves Fielding, where Aziz tells Fielding that when the British India, the two will be able to  friends. Fielding wonders why they could not be friends now that they both want be, but heaven and earth seem to say “No, not yet …. No, not there. “

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Grammatical Categories in English

Posted on 26 September 2011 by Aajiz

Grammatical Categories

1.       Tense

A feature of verbs, associated with time.

Types:

i) Present

ii) Past

iii) Future

The tense of a verb indicates whether the action denoted by the verb takes place in present, took place in the past and will take place in the future

Tense also indicates wheter the action denoted by the verb, is simple, countinues or completed.

Types of Tenses:

i) Simple Tense

ii) Continuous Tense

iii) Perfect Tense

  •  Simple Tense

A simple tense is a tense “without complication”. It denotes present, past or future in a direct way. It makes a simple statement about time of action.

For Example;

I eat.

He eats.

I and the he are the first and third person singular of the present simple tense of the verb to eat.

  • Past Simple Tense

                                I ate

He ate.

These are the 1st and 3rd person singular of the past tense.

  • Future Simple Tense

                                I shall eat.

He will eat.

These are the 1st and 3rd person singular of the future simple tense.

Continous Tense

The continuos tense, indiacting is, was or will be continuing, are fromed the auxiliary verb to be eith the present participle.

  • Present Continuous Tense

I am going.

She is going.

  • Past Continuous Tense

I was going.

She was going.

  • Future Continuous Tense

I shall be going.

He will be going.

Perfect Tense:

Perfect tense, indicating that an action is, was or will be completed.

Exaples;

I have ridden

I had ridden

I shall have ridden

2.       Mood

Different moods or manners in which verb may be used to express an action are called moods.

Mood is the mode as manner in which the action denoted by verb is represented.

These are three moods in English.

i) Indicative

ii) Imperative

iii) Subjective

  • Indicative Mood

Indicative mood is used

–> To make a statement of fact

–> To ask a question

For Example

Rabia goes to school daily.

Have you found your book?

Indicative mood is also used in expressing a supposition which is assumed as a fact, as

If he comes, then I will go.

  • Imperative Mood

A verb which expresses a commond, an exhotation, a prayer, is in the imperative mood.

Examples;

A commond or “come here”

An exhortation, as “Try to do better”

Note:

i)                    The imperative mood can strictly be used only in the second person.

ii)                   The subject of a verb in the imperative mood (you) is usually omitted.

For Example

Stop! In this sentence, you is hidden.

  • Subjective Mood

The mood of a verb that express a wish, a supposition, hope, condition, or a doubt.

Examples;

–> God bless you.

–> I wish I knew his name.

 3.       Voice

The object of the active becoming the subject of the passive. The active voice indicates that the subject of the verb acts. The passive voice indicates that the subject of verb is acted upon.

Active Voice

The predicate comes after the subject

Sara Helps Nadia

In this sentence, the form of verb shows that person denoted by the subject does something.

Passive Voice

The predicates comes before the subject as

Nadia is helped by Sara.

In this sentence the form of the verb shows that something is done to the person denoted by the subject.

–> A verb in the active voice shows that the action it denotes is performed by subject.

–> A verb in the passive voice shows that the action it denotes is performed upon the subject.

 4.       Case

A feature of naun, associated with a variety of largely unrelated semantic and grammatical features.

  • Nominative

When the noun and pronoun are used as a subject of verb

John threw a ball (John is nominative)

  • Accusative

When the noun and pronoun are used as an object of verb.

She broke the window. (Window is accusitive)

  • Genitive or Possessive

Case which normaly denotes possession or shows ownership.

John’s school is very good. (‘s is genitive)

  • Dative

The case of the indirect object word.

We gave the beggar a meal. (The beggar is dative)

  • Vocative

The Case of person or thing addressed.

John, I want to see you (John os vocative)

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Bacon as a prose stylist

Posted on 22 September 2011 by Aajiz

Bacon’s Style

In fact, the secret of Bacon’s style strength lies in its brevity. Virtually no writer, ancient or modern, has managed to compress so much in so little meaning compass, various tests, such as “studies and negotiations” – are marvels of condensation Perhaps the most. Bacon’s style is fascinating that no one can remain indifferent. In other words, as a prose writer is passionate admirers or detractors. It is interesting to note that these two extremes are caused by the same style properties. Bacon, inaugurated the modern era of English prose. FG Selby says,

“Part of the influence of Bacon is obviously the charm of his style”

“The quality of the force in the style of bacon is intellectual rather than emotional”

To be sure there is a marked difference in the style of his earlier trials and his family later. But the important fact is that the difference is one of the approach and not a technology. Test Bacon originally thought to be anything but a newspaper “dispersed meditations.” Therefore, the previous tests are rare and lapidary scrawl of his remarks on domestic issues, political, intellectual, moral, religious and social. Consequently, the informed reader can see that these tests are only skeletons of thought grouped around a single theme. “On education” in this category. In this essay, we see that Bacon is a quick and chatty writing — almost as if speaking to himself:

“Men despise Crafty studies, simple men admire them, and wise-use”

Allusions In Bacon’s Style

It should be noted that the aphoristic nature of the dictionaries can be found in his essays later. The difference is that, over time, Bacon, tongs tonic-strong rhythm of his sentences. This is because; he realized that his rapidly growing readership consists of people with tastes and reading skills. We compare the pace of the above lines of that rite of passage into “difficulties”, which is one of his later essays:

“We see in needle works and embroideries, it is more pleasing to have a lively work upon sad, solemn ground, than to have a dark and melancholy work upon a lightsome ground”

The brilliant rhetoric is the same in both passages. So it is concise and succinct vigor. Although Bacon’s penchant for juxtaposition of thesis and antithesis is seen in both cases. The main difference is that the first pass, it is designed so that Dean Church was moved to say that the words “

“… Down likes a hammer …”

By contrast, the second passage flows more smoothly, like a melody at once. In its early days, Bacon made his concise style ignoring superfluous adjectives, conjunctions and connectors. Later, aims to craft balanced sentences, consisting of two parts. The first part is a declaration and the second is an explanatory analogy. For example:

“He that hath wife and child hath given hostages to fortune; for they are impediments to great enterprises either of virtue or mischief”

Bacon phrases are modern in structure than the other Elizabethan prose being sharper and less involved. Even in its more complex sentences are built with such care and inversions in a free way that is not hard to catch. Essays, in particular, are significant, and the balance point, of course, cannot wait for their aphoristic style. This is really strange when you consider that he also wrote sentences like this:

“A lie faces God and shrinks from man”

Or this

“The ways to enrich are many, and most of them foul”

It ‘true that the cavalier attitude of the grammar is clearly visible in the second sentence. But most people would agree that they have no problem understanding what the writer has to say. It should be noted that the age of Bacon, little attention was paid to the logical division of the subject to pieces. One of the pleasurable aspects of Bacon’s style is to use his images and, as a result. Consider the termination of his pride, “self-righteousness”:

“The fly sat upon the axle-tree of the chariot wheel said,
what a dust do I raise?”

Two Bacon’s Style As Conclusion:

The above analysis shows that Bacon had two styles of writing. Rather, you can say it was the same style, which has applied in different ways, if the situation demanded. Surely this is just one of the reasons why his admirers claim to be one of the greatest prose stylists in English.

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The Republic Book X

Posted on 19 September 2011 by Aajiz

Summary

Socrates has already completed the main argument of the Republic, establishing justice and has proven to be valid. He turns to the question of poetry leads humans. Surprising move, banished poets from the city. He has three reasons to believe that poets unhealthy and dangerous. First, pretend to know all sorts of things, but really know nothing. It generally considered aware of what they write, but really do not. Things that treatment cannot be know: these images, far from what is real. Presenting such scenes of the truth of poets, evil souls, depart from the more real to say the least.

Worse still, the images do not imitate the poets present a good part of the soul. The rational soul is peaceful, stable, and it is difficult to imitate or understand. Poets imitate the worst parts, trends that make the characters easily excitable, and colorful. Poetry, of course, appeals to the worst parts of the soul awakens and nourishes and strengthens the basic elements of this new transform part of a sensible energy.

Poetry corrupts even the best minds. He deceives us into sympathy with those who weep too, as the desire to laugh at inappropriate things basic. It sticks well to feel these emotions base effects assistant. We believe there is no shame in engaging in these feelings because we deliver in conjunction with a fictional character and not in our own lives. But the joy we feel these sentiments to engage in the lives of others is transferred to our own lives. When these parts of ourselves have been nurtured and strengthened in the way they can flourish in us when we deal with our own lives. Suddenly, we became the grotesque kind of people we have seen on stage or heard in the epic poems.

The obvious dangers of poetry and Socrates’ sorry from banish poets. Sacrifice aesthetics feels sharp, and said he would be happy to help you return to the city if anyone can make an argument in their defense.

Socrates, the Commission will present a short proof of the immortality of the soul. In principle, the proof is this: X can be destroyed by what is bad for X. What is a poor soul is injustice and other vices. But the injustice and other vices apparently do not destroy the soul, or tyrants, and others are not able to survive for long. So nothing can destroy the soul and the soul is immortal.

When Socrates presented evidence that he can put his final argument in favor of justice. This argument, based on the myth of Er, to receive the reward come afterlife. According to legend, a warrior named is killed in battle, but not really die. He was sent to heaven and made to look all that happens for him to return to the earth and report what he saw. It is an eschatological system that rewards virtue, especially wisdom. For 1000 years, people are either rewarded or punished in heaven to hell for sins or good deeds in their lives. They are then assembled in a common space and forced to choose their next life, animal or human. Life they choose will determine if they are rewarded or punished in the next cycle. Only those who were philosophically in his lifetime, including Orpheus, who choose to be reborn as a swan about to catch the trick, how to choose just life. Everyone else hurtles between happiness and misery with every cycle.

Analysis

Book X, then, Plato’s philosophy of education bumps based on a comparison of traditional poetry-based education. Plato justified in the philosophy and the philosopher, and now appears to them in relation to its competitors, people who are thinking of a sage and wise, poets.

The myth, with reward and punishment is an argument based on the motivations of the principles of Plato rejected. Glaucon and Adeimantus asked specifically to praise the law without resorting to these factors. Why is doing exactly that?

Allan Bloom suggests that the inclusion of this myth related to the philosophical distinction between virtue and civic virtue. Virtue is the kind of philosophical philosopher, virtue is and what kind of virtue distinguished from the effect of the normal citizen. So far, says Bloom, Plato has shown that under this philosophy is valid in itself. He has not shown that civic virtue is worthy. For Glaucon and Adeimantus, and countless others who are not capable of philosophical virtue, we must give them a reason to pursue their own form of virtue. The contrast between the philosophical and civic virtue in the mind, Plato describes the years thousands of cycles of reward and punishment is just and unjust lives.

However, our understanding of what makes all the useful virtue; their connection with the forms of Plato has sufficiently demonstrated the value of the two kinds of virtues. Under the philosophy may be more useful as it not only mimics the forms, but also directed at others and with them, but civic virtue is equally valid, since it involves making the shape of your life by establishing order and harmony in his soul. Bloom, however, has another plausible hypothesis to explain why Plato understands the myth of Er, and is consistent with our understanding of the value of justice. The myth of Err, Bloom explains, illustrates once again the need for philosophy. Civic virtues are not enough. Philosophers only life they know how to choose good news, because only they understand the soul and understand what makes a life good and bad. The others, who do not have this understanding, sometimes choose between good and evil at times.

Fluctuate back and forth between the lives of good and bad. Since each soul is responsible for choosing his own life, each person must take full responsibility to be fair or unfair. We have deliberately chosen to be unfair because of our ignorance of what makes a soul just or unjust. Ignorance, then, is the only real sin, and philosophy, the only remedy.

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Parts of Speech

Posted on 11 September 2011 by Aajiz

Parts Of Speech

“Parts of speech” are the basic types of words that English has. Most grammar books say that there are eight parts of speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions and interjections. We will add one more type: determiners/articles. In the modern era POS are known as “word classes”.

1. Noun

“A word which shows the name of some person, place, thing, condition etc.”.

For Example;

  • John bought a pen from New York.
  • There is a political disturbance in Libya.

Types Of Nouns

  • Common Noun, e.g. Cat, Chair, Book
  • Proper Noun, e.g. Qatar, China, Libya
  • Abstract Noun, e.g. Beauty, Love, Honesty
  • Collective Noun, e.g. Army, Class, Company
  • Concrete Noun, e.g. Book, Pencil, Gate
  • Countable Noun, e.g. Cap, Shirt, Bag
  • Uncountable Noun, e.g. Milk, Water, Air

Functions of Noun

  • Nominative: John goes to school (Noun and pronoun as subject)
  • Vocative: John, where are you going?
  • Accusative: Where is John?
  • Genitive: This is John’s book.
  • Dative: John gave me his book.

Gender

  • Feminine, An actress was standing near the mare.
  • Masculine, John saw a lion.
  • Neuter, Bicycle was hit by a truck.
  • Plurals

2. Pronoun

A word that is used instead of noun is called pronoun e.g. Personal pronoun, Reflexive Pronoun, Relative Pronoun, Demonstrative Pronoun

  • Personal: He is playing. (She, It, You, They etc.)
  • Reflexive: You will hurt yourself. (myself, itself)
  • Relative: I met Ali who had just returned.
  • Demonstrative: Each of the boys gets a prize.

3. Verb

A verb is the name of some action, state done by the subject or completes the meaning of the subject.

  • Faustus goes to University.
  • Faustus felt Hungry.

Kinds of Verb

Lexical Verb:

Lexical verb is a word one of the parts of speech, it conveys the complete meanings after the subject. It can stand without the auxiliaries or modals e.g. eat, drink, go, come etc. There are two kinds of lexical verbs.

  • Transitive: I Kick the ball.
  • Intransitive: I fall.

Auxiliary Verb:

Auxiliary verbs are also known as helping verbs but they cannot stand in the sentence without the lexical verbs. There are three types of auxiliaries.

  • Principal Auxiliaries: To be, to have, to do.
  • Modal Auxiliaries: can, may, must, will, ought
  • Semi-Modal: To need, to dare, used

4. Adjective

A word which qualifies the noun to show its quality, quantity, etc. is called Adjective.

Kinds of Adjective:

  • Demonstrative
  • Distributive
  • Quantitative
  • Interrogative
  • Possessive
  • Of Quality

Position of Adjective

  • Attributive; a type of adjective which comes with the noun e.g. Happy Faustus, Naughty Girl
  • Predicative; an adjective which comes after the verb to show the quality of the noun e.g. The farmer is small.

5. Adverb

An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or an other adverb.

  • This is a very sweet mango.
  • He comes here daily.

Kinds of Adverb

  • Manner (which shows how or in what manner) e.g. The boy works hard.
  • Time (Which Shows when) e.g. He came here Yesterday.
  • Place ( Which Shows where) e.g. He came out Yesterday.
  • Frequency (which shows How often) e.g. He always tries to do his best.
  • Degree (which shows how much or in what degree) e.g. You are quite wrong.
  • Interrogative (which enquires) e.g. Why was he late?

Formation of Adverb

Many adverbs of manner and some adverbs of degree are formed by adding ‘ly’ to the corresponding. For example

Position of Adverb

  • Adverbs of manner, which answer the question “how”? Are generally placed after the verb or after the object e.g. It is Rainy Heavily. The Ship is going slowly.
  • Adverbs or adverb phrases of place and of time are usually placed after the verb or after the object e.g. I met him yesterday.
  • When there are two are more adverbs after a verb, the normal order is MPT e.g. She should go there tomorrow evening.
  • If the verb is ‘Am’/ ‘Are’/ ‘is’/ ‘was’/ ‘were’/ , adverbs are placed after the verb; as

–He is always at home on Sunday.

–We are just off.

6. Preposition

A preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show in what relation the person or thing denoted by its stands in regard to something else. For Example

–Faustus is fond of magic.

–There is a cow in the field.

Kinds of Preposition

There are three kinds of preposition

Simple: At, by, for, from, on, out, in etc.

–My book is in my bag.

Compound: These are generally formed by prefixing a preposition ( Usually a=no or be=by) For Example

Across, Around, before, behind

–I came the day before yesterday.

Kinds of Preposition

Phrase: A group a words which complete with more than two words or syllables. For Example

According to, In place of, in spite of, instead of, in order to etc.

According to Aristotle, tragedy cannot be completed in spite of catharsis.

7. Conjunction

A conjunction is a word which merely joins together sentences, clauses, and some times words. There are two types of conjunction

  •  Coordinating Conjunctions:

A coordinating conjunction joins together clauses of equal rank e.g. and, but, both…and, or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also

Both men and women were laughing at me but I was looking at their ice cream.

  • Subordinating Conjunction:

A subordinating conjunction joins a clause to another on which it depends for its full meanings e.g. if, that, though/although, unless, when, ete.

–Faustus will serve you, if you give him respect.

When it is wet the buses are crowded.

8. Interjection

An interjection is a word which expresses sudden feelings or emotions e.g. Alas!, Hurrah!, Bravo!, What!, etc.

Hurrah! We won the match.

Alas! He is dead.

9. Determiners

  • Determiners are uses at the beginning of noun, phrases, e.g. I met the two Pakistani girls in London.
  • You use specific determiner when people know exactly which things or people you are talking about e.g.

–The began to run toward the boy.

–Her face was red.

  • You use general determiners to talk about people or things without saying exactly who or what they are e.g. There was a man in the lift.

Specific Determiners:

  •  The definite article: the
  • Demonstrative: this, that, these, those
  • Possessive: my, your, his, her, its, our, their

General Determiners:

  •  Countable: All, any, an, few other
  • Uncountable: Enough, much, less

 

By: M. Zaman Ali

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The Ambassador’s Disguise

Posted on 08 September 2011 by Aajiz

Once, in the palace of Vladimir, a Great Russian prince of Kiev, all the nobles were making boasts. Once noble boasted of his strength, another showed off his wisdom. Others boasted of their wealth or their trusted horses.

One noble, Stavr Godinovich, said nothing at all. He sat with a dreamy look on his face.

Prince Vladimir noticed this and asked,

‘Why are you silent, Stavr? Have you nothing to say?’

‘Great Prince,’ replied Stavr, ‘I have nothing to boast of except my wife,

Katrina. She is young and beautiful; brave and more skilful than any warrior here. She can shoot with a bow, sing like a nightingale, and enchant everyone with her harp. And no one here will ever beat her at chess!’

‘Is that so?’ interrupted the prince.

‘Yes, indeed, Great Prince,’ replied Stavr. ‘She could easily defeat all your nobles! And, pardon me for saying so, Great Prince, but you are no match for her either!’

The prince became very angry, when he heard this. He glared at Stavr and said, ‘You have gone too far this time. How dare you say that I am no match for your wife?’

The prince pointed a finger at Stavr, and turning to one of his guards, said:

‘Take this man away! Throw him into the dungeon. Give him oats and water-nothing more. Now go!’

The guard did as he was instructed. He threw Stavr into a cold, dark dungeon. The only light came from a small window with thick iron bars, high up near the ceiling. All Stavr could see was the sky. He sat on the cold, stone floor feeling very sad. As night fell, Stavr looked out of the window at the stars in the sky.

‘Alas,’ he thought to himself, ‘I have served the prince for nine years, and this is how he repays me! I am sorry I hurt the prince, but I only spoke the truth about my wife. I hope someone tells Katrina where  I am.’

Katrina heard what had happened to her husband. She tired to visit him the following day, but the guards would not let her in. So she thought of a plan to rescue him.

Katrina called together her band of thirty archers, thirty chess masters, and thirty musicians. She told them she needed their help to rescue her husband, and they agreed to help her.

The next day Katrina got ready. She wore a suit of armour, with a helmet to cover her face. She carried a bow and some arrows, a club of steel, and a long lance. Perched on her left forearm was a hooded falcon. She mounted a tall, black horse.

When her friends arrived, she set off for the palace leading them. A short distance from the walls of the city, Katrina told her followers to wait. She rode by herself into the city, and went to the great hall of the palace. All the people thought she was some great warrior. Of course, no one guessed she was a woman.

Katrina bowed to Prince Vladimir.

‘I am the Ambassador of the King of Greece,’ she announced. ‘I have come to collect tribute from you. If you refuse to pay, my army of forty thousand men will attack your city.’

Prince Vladimir trembled with fear.

‘Give me time to think, Ambassador,’ he begged.

‘Time is precious,’ roared the Ambassador. ‘I want your answer now. Pay the tribute or we will attack. If you cannot pay, then give me your niece, Zabava, to be my wife’.

The Prince’s niece, Zabava, was a beautiful and clever girl. The prince loved her dearly. There was nothing in the world he would do so to harm her. At this time, Zabava was sitting in the great hall, watching, and listening to all that was said.

The prince asked her, ‘Beloved niece, only you can save us. What are we to do?’

‘Dear Uncle,’ replied Zabava, ‘I obey you in all matters, but I cannot marry a woman! This Ambassador is not a man but a woman. See how the Ambassador talks and walks. Look at the ring marks on her delicate fingers.’

‘You may be right,’ agreed the prince, ‘but what can we do to find out if the Ambassador is a man or a woman?’

A little later, Prince Vladimir spoke to the Ambassador.

‘Dear Ambassador,’ said the prince, ‘my niece is used to people with great skill. I can only allow her to marry you, if you can show us you are skilful.

Come, show us if you can play the harp.’

A harp was brought, and Katrina began to play it and sing. The nobles were enchanted with the music, but no one could tell whether the Ambassador was a man or a woman.

Then the prince asked the Ambassador to play a game of chess. The prince was the best player in the land. He believed if the Ambassador was a woman, she would lose.

Much to prince’s astonishment, the Ambassador won the game.

The prince turned to Zabava. ‘This is no woman,’ he whispered.

‘I am sure she is,’ replied Zabava.

The prince thought for a while, then said to the Ambassador, ‘Let us now try some archery.’

The prince, the Ambassador, and the nobles all went outside into a large courtyard. A golden ring was set up at one end, and the prince placed a steel knife behind it.

First the prince shot three arrows at the target. The arrows passed through the ring but did not hit the knife. Then the Ambassador shot an arrow at the ring. The arrow hissed like a snake as it flew. It passed through the ring and cut itself into two against the edge of the knife.

The prince was now sure that the Ambassador was a man. But Zabava still did not agree with him.

‘I shall not marry a woman,’ she cried. ‘The Ambassador may shoot arrows just like a man, but he talks, walks, and sits just like a woman.’

The prince became angry, ‘You are being silly,’ he said. ‘I order you to marry the Ambassador. Go, prepare for your wedding!’

Zabava ran off in tears. The prince told the Ambassador that his bride would soon be ready. But Katrina decided to put an end to this game.

She said to the prince, ‘Before the wedding, let us fight each other. Let us see who is stronger.’

Trembling at this suggestion, the prince said, ‘Ambassador, there is no one here who is your match.’

‘Oh dear,’ replied Katrina, ‘Is there no one? I was looking forward to some sport. Perhaps there is a brave warrior in your dungeons that could fight me?’

‘Yes! Yes, there is,’ said the prince smiling and remembering Stavr Goginovich.

He immediately ordered his guards to bring Stavr from the dungeons.

Soon, Stavr Goginovich arrived. He was ordered to put on a suit of armour and mount a horse. When Stavr was ready, he and the Ambassador galloped into a nearby field. All the nobles went to watch the great fight.

The Ambassador and Stavr rode towards each other and then leapt from horse to horse. They threw their steel club in the air, and then rode straight towards the prince. The terrible Ambassador of Greece took off her helmet, and threw it at the feet of the prince. Katrina’s beautiful long hair fell down over her shoulders. The nobles gasped in surprise.

‘Great Prince,’ laughed Katrina, ‘I have rescued my husband from your dungeons. You must agree. He was right to boast of my skill. Now farewell!

 

“They laughed together, Katrina and Stavr Godinovich rode away….’’

 

BY: AQSA RIAZ

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