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Themes in Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus

Posted on 01 July 2013 by Aajiz

Themes in Doctor Faustus

Themes are the universal and fundamental ideas presented in a literary work. There are lots of significant themes in Doctor Faustus.

Flesh and Spirit

The conflict between flash and spirit is strongly depicted in Doctor Faustus. Flash is related with human body lust and desires while spirit deals with religion and God. Flash consider worldly pleasures more important while spirit resistance against those desires. Faustus values flesh move them spirit.

 Good and Evil

Good and evil are the most important issue presented in Doctor Faustus. Conflict between Good and evil makes a man hesitant, he remains confused like Faustus that either he have to adopt good or evil what way is good for him and what way sis dangerous for him.

 Pride and Sin

Pride and sin is the most important factor in the downfall of Faustus. Pride belongs to the seven deadly sins, considering himself better from all, Faustus falls in pride and quickly adopt sin to fulfill his lusty desires which leads him towards hell.

 Salvation and Damnation

According to Christian religion salvation is necessary for a Christian to save from hell. It one’s fail to get salvation, he will be eternally damned. Salvation actually deals with the repentance, but the Faustus refuses to repent which causes his damnation and he is punished forever in the hell.

Knowledge and Wisdom

Faustus has a great lust for knowledge. He has studies all the branches of knowledge including divinity but he feels the himself still hungry about the knowledge that’s why he adopts the forbidden knowledge which is called black art. It was his failure of wisdom while adopting the forbidden knowledge. Faustus was not true towards life because he was valuing his knowledge on his wisdom.

 Man’s Lust and Limitations of Power

Man like Doctor Faustus has so many desires like lust for wealth, lust for beauty, lust for power etc. But when he adopts the wrong way to fulfill his desires he cannot be succeeded. Like Faustus sells him soul for fulfilling his desires but he comes to know about his limitations as a man when he used to just amuse and entertain dukes for showing his skill of black art. He cannot do something like God which shows the limitations of power.

Greed

Another theme in Doctor Faustus is that of greed like other heroes of Marlow’s heroes forget their responsibilities to God and other creatures instead they try to hid their weak character. Faustus was in a tragic cycle of   greed and despair.

Tragic Hero

A tragic is a character that the audience thinks with despite his / her action that would indicate the contrary. Faustus in the play not the mere shell of a man existing only represents the evil in the world. He is a human beings with full of emotions and thoughts. Although the Doctor Faustus himself does not care of humanity.

Doctor Faustus (film)

Doctor Faustus (film) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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Symbolism in A Doll’s House Ibsen

Posted on 17 March 2013 by Aajiz

Symbolism in A Doll’s House Ibsen

WHAT IS SYMBOLISM?

Symbolism is literacy device used by prominent playwrights in history of English literature. Keats, Blake, Shelly, O’Neil and Henrik Ibsen used symbolic representation of subject in conventional or unconventional forms. Poet explores mysties through symbolic representation. In this context  “ Symbolism Manifesto” was written by (Moreas,1986). Furthermore symbolism, Jane Austin’s pride and prejudice, T.S Eliot’s “The Wast Land” and Ulysses 1992 by James Joyce are the best symbolic works.

Ibsen significantly uses the symbols (symbolism) to represent the identities and ideologies of 19th century. He uses different symbols that relate to not only culture, religion,politics but also that  bears the psychological effects indeed. It is unique developed myth of literature that illuminate the hidden facts un utterly. Symbols like door, macron, embroidered dress, tree, and even the title itself is symbolic and influence at the society.

“in theatre image and object, pretense and pretender, sign-vehicle and content, draw usually close”(Bert 1996: 20).

Symbols are the portraits of the illusions and bonds of society, here Ibsen is constructing in form of ‘NORA’ in A Doll’s House. Though Shakespeare plays are  beyond to Ibsen age but both uses theatrical symbols even one is Norwegian and other is Englishmen.

IBSEN’S VIEW ABOUT SYMBOLISM

Ibsen himself says’

  “to try and give the reader the impression of experiencing a piece of reality”(Ibsen qtd in homer :p.72).

The language, setting and even dress, parties are realistic features shown in symbols. Ibsen portrays the bourgeois features and finedfemininities, ideologies and identities in this drama and believes in the freedom and equality of woman.

Following are the symbols used by the Ibsen

Door’s Symbolism

Play open with door in setting, Nora walks towards door is sign of imprisonment of woman of 19th century under the bond of marriage. She seems to be happy but in fact critics peep inside the door and find the femininity (ies) and identities of domesticate woman.

“A room furnished comfortably and tastefully, but not extravagantly. At the back, a door to the right leads to the entrance-hall, an other to the left leads to HELMER:’s study. Between the doors stands a piano. In the middle of the left-hand wall is a door, and beyond it a window. Near the window are a round table, arm-chairs and a small sofa. In the right-hand wall, at the farther end, another door; and on the same side, nearer the footlights, a stove, two easy chairs and a rocking-chair; between the stove and the door, a small table”.(Ibsen, A doll’ s House: 2)

The whole drama is performed inside the room. That also brings the capitalistic perspective of the society. The door opening is actually view of the domestic situation in patriarchal society we find at the dismissal of the relations again the door is in front of Nora to celebrate freedom as earlier she entered in cage created by men

MACRONS’ Symbolism

Ibsen provides non verbal feminists clues as Nora’s shawl, macron, tree etc..

“Just now. [Puts the bag of macaroons into her pocket and wipes her mouth.] Come in here, Torvald, and see what I have bought”.(Ibsen, A Dolls House:4)

The self independence is governed by Torveld is depicted by Ibsen. Suffrage movement was one of the central reaction against this male monopoly. Woman was not free physically and oppressed psychologically too. That is why Nora is subordinate creature to Helmer. “She shut the door, she continues to laugh, she takes off her things, she takes a bag of macrons out of her pocket and eats one or two”

In the male dominance the issue of identities and femininities is at the verge of collapse and the gradual intensity of this tyranny make persuade to other sex to rebel and snatch the freedom that was got by Nora at the end of  play. She transgendered her identity.

CHRISTMAS TREE’s Symbolism

Christmas tree is symbolic representation of the Nora’s personality. It is decorated as Nora would be on Christmas day and there is a star twinkle top of the tree that represent the hope and ambitions of Nora. The new year that starts from Christmas is symbolic to the feminists movements that give liberty to Nora against the male dominance. Nora is as attractive in multidimensional identity, a mother a daughter , a wife hence she is a pleasing object constructed by Ibsen as religion refers to Christmas.

John Northon argues that,

“the symbols is for the first time, a physical reality on the stage, a mere enough to it suggest actual presence. It is therefore both fact and symbol and from that fusion emerges the closure union of symbolism and reality which makes the play so complexly significant (the wild duck 1884, p.105-06)

SQUIRREL SKYLARK’s Symbolism

“Is that my little lark twittering out there”?(Ibsen, A Doll’s House:5)

Ibsen uses the animated and in animated choices and refers Nora to  innocent bird like skylark. The linguistic choices in symbolic representation are patriarchal in nature has Sapirwhorf hypothesis languages is determined by thought and that thought gives strength to male to manipulate and enjoy the power of language Nora is inhibited in Helmer’s house and she is praised by him in metaphoric speech pattern but at the end the same skylark is ready to fly for freedom autonomy

TITLE as Symbolism

The title is in itself a symbolic note describing the femininity and identity of the Victorian society doll is a playful object for everyone and even that is a decoration piece feeling less and emotionless  she is a puppet in the hand of Torveld who want to push the strings according to his wish. Nora also apparently functions as commanded doll but in the end of the play writer is succeeded to awake her from subordination and rebel from the male dominance. She is now independent and making her decision according to her will and choice. The last line she uttered is sign of change bringing the equal rights without gender segregation. The whole drama is full with linguistic lexical and symbolic references representing the female of Ibsen’s “A Doll’s house”.

TOYS’ Symbolism

“Yes, yes, it will. But come here and let me show you what I have bought. And all so cheap! Look, here is a new suit for Ivar, and a sword; and a horse and a trumpet for Bob;  a doll and dolly’s bedstead for Emmy,—”(Ibsen, A Doll’s House:5)

 

Toys are the clear picture of thee development of ideology and identity.  Nora has bought “a horse and a sword” for her earlier son  so that male is initially represented as holder of power and authority while the gifts  for Emmy are  dolls that is the significant example to build femininity (ies) and masculinity (ies) culturally that is why Emma is gifted  by a doll. Ibsen says that a woman of his century is much advanced and womanhood is a socially constructed phenomenon created by men and   female writers as symbolism.

Symbolism: Portrait of Henrik Ibsen by Henrik Olrik

English: Portrait of Henrik Ibsen by Henrik Olrik (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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Oedipus Rex By Aristotle

Posted on 10 December 2011 by Aajiz

Oedipus Rex Introduction

Oedipus Rex is one of the categories of three operates by Sophocles known as Theban operates, since they connect with the destinies of the Theban category of Oedipus and his kids. The other two operates of this team are Antigone and Oedipus at Colonus. However although the three operates are attached by design and topic, they do not type a trilogy in the typical sensation of the expression. In Vocabulary, decryption the engage in is usually known as Oedipus the Entire or Entire Oedipus, but Oedipus Rex, the Latina headline, is the most well known. In Oedipus Rex, Sophocles simply leaves a major issue with story outside the plan. His promotions immediately with only the last day of Oedipus concept over Thebes. We are to believe that Oedipus has been judgment fortunately over Thebes for about many decades. His personal lifestyle also has been a very pleased one. He has four kids by his spouse, Jocasta. Actually, this indicates that even a further fun is in store for him, for after the loss of life of Polybus he is to be profitable him to the throne of Corinth also. However, all this fun is illusory. It is unveiled is a second that, far from being the wonderful of men, Oedipus is the most unpleasant of them. Instead of being the wise solver of riddles, which he himself and as well as his topics believe him to be, he is unaware even of his personality and parentage. In prejudice, he has murdered his dad and wed his mom. Knowing himself the Corinthian knight in shining armor, and trying to prevent the luck, which the Oracle has estimated for him, he actually operates into its grip. He becomes a serious example of the prejudice and vulnerability of man in the experience of success, although in one sensation Oedipus in Sophocles engage in, is surprisingly the expert of the luck at every level, and whatever happens the engage in does so at his own project. Oedipus Rex is a marvel; it is filled with normal beauty and complication of design and importance. It is the most exciting Ancient loss which elaborates,’ Man is a pure puppet in the palms of fate’. There are various standpoints for looking at the design of the engage in. It may be considered as a engage in enacting the design of loss of look to luck, uncertainty of disclosing facts, Being unaware the rashness, understanding the simple reality as dreadful and illustriousness of individuals fun. The drawback of individual’s intellect in solving the riddles of success may also considered one of the considerable speeches of the engage in. The engage in also provides out the loss as well as the pride of individuals resolve and will energy. Experts have discovered many designs in the engage in, the most well known such decryption being that of Freud, who has known as a complicated after Oedipus viz. the Oedipus complex. This engage in may also appeared upon as an allegory—that if one tries to prevent a person’s luck, one would only supporting and hastening it. Thus, Oedipus Rex is the best loss because of its good mixing of Personality and Fate.

Aristotle’s distinction of loss and the engage in Entire Oedipus Rex

Aristotle first identifies loss in his poetics around 330 BC, and all pursuing types of dreadful activities have affected by his elements. According to Aristotle, “Tragedy, then, is an fake of a respectable and total measures, having the appropriate magnitude; it has language that has been beautifully increased . . . ; it is offered in incredible, not story type, and does, through the counsel of pitiable and afraid mishaps, the catharsis of such incidents” (chapter 6; Wonderful 11). Sophocles authored “Oedipus the King” for the yearly competition where playwrights ran for awards. It was a considerable social situation, with work estimated. Sophocles you are incredibly excellent, especially considering his era. His composing is amazing with each expression developing the whole. He is filled with helpful findings on lifestyle. Moreover, despite the restrictions of the type, he often controls to create his individuals seem like actual individuals. The headline of our engage in is often given in its Latina decryption “Oedipus Rex”, rather than in its unique Ancient (”Oedipus Tyranneus”), since the Ancient expression for king is the Vocabulary “tyrant” which indicates a monarch who regulations without the approval of the individuals. There is an in-depth philosophic articles at the again of Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex. It seems through this engage in he suggests that man must dilemma himself with his own activities and is still within his designated area in lifestyle. He must not consider to equivalent the gods in any admiration (as Ancient Belief moves around gods, and Oedipus is also a fabricated engage in as well). He seems to carry out control as an excellent advantage. Increased wish even for such a excellent stuff as understanding angers the gods, who then deliver about the person’s damage through his own overweening satisfaction and conceit. To Sophocles every title has its greatest repercussions, which no one can break free. The techniques of gods are strange and no individuals being must try to food into them. Along with major an un-blamable lifestyle, one must display the appropriate admiration for the gods as well as for the various organizations and methods of faith.

Oedipus Rex as Tragic Hero

Oedipus meets operate of a loss, and arouses dilemma and spend in the best stage. However, unfortunately a present day readers, returning to the vintage excitement not entirely for the objective of fun, will not always submit him to the mental outcome. He is appropriate to fear about Ancient fatalism and the proper rights of the problem of Oedipus, and, discovering no reasonable option for these issues, sheds 50 % the enjoyment that the excitement was designed to generate. Oedipus is superhuman, yet the engage in offers universality. Parricide and incest are not typical activities, yet the misconception of fun, and spending of unwitting offences is a widespread dreadful design. Oedipus is a photograph of a man, who is happy by success, only to be upset all the more when that success gives location to catastrophe as reported in engage in by chorus:

‘’All the generations of mortal man add up to nothing!

Show me the man whose happiness was anything more than illusion

Followed by disillusion.

Here is the instance, here is Oedipus, here is the reason

Why I will call no mortal creature happy.”

 

According to Aristotle the dreadful major man must be a personal of respectable beginning and success whose loss success, not from depravity or vice but from hamartia. The last concept has converted as issue of perspective by most critics but powerfully considered as dreadful drawback. Oedipus is clearly advanced type of personal established by Aristotle, and he is in fun of excellent fun and success at the beginning of the story. However, it is challenging to say that his loss befalls him because of some drawback in his character, or some issue of perspective dedicated by him. There is uncertainty that his character has several problems and that he does make some issue of perspective, but the concern is whether these mistakes are the cause of his tragedy? Oedipus is uncertainty hasty, anxious, annoying and enthusiastic. He is also very pleased of his intellect, and considers that he can discover the respond to every issue. At more than one location, he is also accountable of impious thoughts. His procedure to Creon is far from sensible, and he is needlessly tough to Teiresias. Yet, if we take his loss to be the primary activities of incest and parricide, then these problems and mistakes of Oedipus are unnecessary. However, Oedipus claims a serious strategy to the killer of Laius and says that he will prize the procedure even to himself, if he is the accountable personal. It is by his thoughts that Teiresias is angered and prophesies a serious strategy to the killer of his dad and the man of his mom. Moreover, Oedipus success in him further by generating fun of his loss of look and this head Teiresias to anticipate that Oedipus also will become shades and will depart Thebes like a dependent beggar. Although the estimations do not deliver about the activities described in them,, yet they add to Oedipus having issues and humiliations. Or one may say that Oedipus commits the essential blunder of considering himself similar to the gods and of being able to address every issue. In that situation the dreadful drawback in Oedipus would become that of cockiness or hubris. His profession changes from success to dreadful trouble, and he creates the dreadful development that individuals understanding is incredibly restricted and inaccurate.

Hubris or Destiny

‘’You cannot change this. The gods themselves

Cannot fix it. It follows of necessity………..’’

In Sophocles disasters individuals having issues trips the not guilty as much as does the accountable, and he who goes through is, therefore, not instantly accountable. The poet will develop the aspect of suffering; he does note—especially not in his later works—accept it as a procedure or retribution; rather he focuses on the purity of the victim…. Moreover, despite this procedure, the poet still needs recognition of the best man having issues. Therefore, we discover in his operates no examining theodicy, no research into the cause of having issues, but the sentence that having issues is built in individuals instinct. Sophocles simply leaves little uncertainty that whatever there is a clash between the individual’s law and the divine; it is beautiful law, which warrants to be discovered.

‘’Of happiness the crown

And chiefest part

Is wisdom, and to hold

The gods in awe.

This is the law

That seeing the stricken heart

Of pride brought down,

We learn when we are old.’’

 

Chance is the considerable pedaling in the plan of Ancient Fabricated operates. Fate is itself the considerable management of individuals in any situation. Greeks considers that Destiny is preplanned and the composing by the deities and the beautiful law so highly effective that provide, boost and management all the transcendental and cosmological features. As Bill Shakespeare shows in such thoughts, the same spiritual and fabricated beautiful theory:

‘As flies to the wonton boys,

Are we to the gods?

They kill us for their sport.’’

 

This is the most dubious factor and in few thoughts of concept, it could not be simple to take the whole idea and the elements. Many materials has been vindicated and created on this topic, yet there is so many places to be chock-full. Consequently, Oedipus Rex symbolizes FATE as a managing energy as a powerful design, divinity and beautiful energy in biggest built and judgment over the totally freedom. One of the major designs of this engage in is FATE or FREE WILL. So far in Ancient fabricated engage in Fate benefits over the totally freedom. Fate cannot be over create by gods and not even can remove, which gives beginning to the loss and this happens to the suitable dreadful major man Oedipus. Therefore, Oedipus Rex is also acknowledged as loss of luck.

Paradox in the play

Oedipus Rex is certainly, a engage in which identifies contradictions. The presentation situations, imagined and judgment situations. Situations regarding appearance and reality is strongly and powerfully culcated as a design in the engage in. The contradiction takes place when Teiresias affects Oedipus and the discussion in return explains the simple reality from one aspect and prejudice from another. The simple fact beyond shades delivers forth by the prolonged features of Oedipus. Sophocles is professional enough to create comparison of luck and totally freedom by outfits them as individuals and the major design of the engage in. Evaluate contradiction and clash and this has been created through the individuals and their presentation. Oedipus and Jocasta characterize the photograph of concealed contradiction, where as their regards depending on concern. Oedipus and Laius in a roundabout way, So far the paradox is the one of the considerable styles of the engage in which boost it as a loss and create it remarkable over the decades.

Relevance of Teiresias

Although Teiresias is a personality in two of the three Theban operates of Sophocles, he is in fact a determine in Ancient mythology. Teiresias was a Theban who was once improved into a woman for some time for the criminal offenses of eliminating the females of a couple of snakes. There two cultures about how he became shades. According to one of them, Zeus and Hera requested him whether a man or a woman experienced erectile partnership more. Zeus had been requiring that females experienced it more, while Hera of the perspective that men gotten increased fun. Teiresias acknowledged the perspective of Zeus, due to which the envious Hera hit him shades. Zeus rewarded him for this loss by advantage him with a durability and conferring on him the present of prediction. According to another story, he was cornered shades because he occurred to enjoy Athena while she was washing. In Oedipus Rex, his part is more considerable, he is the one who is shades seer, though seemingly shades but giving with incredible sensation of understanding about upcoming and its predictions:

‘’Student of mysteries,

Of all that’s taught and all that no man tells,

Secrets of Heaven and secrets of the earth’’

Creon suggests Oedipus to deliver for Teiresias and ask him to uncover some option for the issues of Thebes. Later the Refrain also together with the same details and Oedipus response that he has already done so. It seems to be, however that Teiresias is not very willing to appear before the king. Teiresias is a outstanding and compared determine in the engage in. The comparison between the external elegance and inward loss of look of Oedipus and the external loss of look and inward look of the prophet is one of the given features of the world and Sophocles does not spend this normal possibility. Oedipus taunts Teiresias with his loss of look, saying that he has ‘eyes for revenue only, loss of look in his create.’ Teiresias’ reply is a amazing consummation of this engage in on look and loss of look. Teiresias retorts, ‘’you have your look, but you do not see in what wicked you are.’’ His messages, thoroughly in the engage in are considerable and disclosing. He is the associate of greatly mind spokesperson in entrance of Oedipus for his Fate and Character’s hamartia. Teiresias is associate of reality and simple fact and the one who eliminates the take care of of illusionary layer of fun and wonder of Oedipus. So far, Teiresias is the one who pinpoints the issue of perspective and his character is the important, highly effective and middle one in the orgasm and the planning of the engage in.

Significance of Jocasta character

The features of Jocasta that comes into engage in are mostly those of a spouse and a king but we are still able to message board some perception of her features as a woman. She seems to be quite in comparison with the hot impetuosity of Oedipus for she is light, average and awesome –headed. This we see best of all when she rebukes Oedipus and Creon for involving in personal justifications each time when the town is affected with a catastrophe. She promotions with the two disputants as though they were youngsters and is able to recover relaxed and serenity. She always keeps her personal mental baggage in have a look at, anticipate at the end when she whines hysterically, phoning upon the deceased Lauis We come accorss to have the importance details about Jocasta also by the hindsight of the activities that took location at some factor of Laius. It seems potential that Jocasta unquestionably same part of blanket with Laius which she operates now in the situation of Oedipus. She offered the youngster Oedipus to the shepherd so that he should depart it on the hill to die of visibility. This seems the heartlessness of a mom, but then, what was at share was the daily lifetime of her man and king, and for that, all other factors had to take second location. She was accessible and thoughtful to her servants, for she at once arranged to the request of the shepherd that he should be sent away from Thebes into the country. However, she seems to be competent of self-effacement. When a challenging luck forces her to take another man soon after the announcement of the loss of life of Laius, she seems to have posted tamely. Not once, this indicates, has she chatted to Oedipus about her first man. We do not know to what level Jocasta’s insufficient admiration towards the gods shows her actual features and to what level it is a position imagined as a way to relaxed down her spouse’s concerns. Perhaps there is a little of both these factors included in her mind-set. In her thoughts it is possibility and not the will of gods, which regulations individuals lifestyle and she looks for to turn her man also to this perspective which is a immediate contradiction of Ancient faith and morality: ‘’Fear? What has a man to do with fear?

Chance regulations our existence and the extensive run is all unidentified.

Best live as best we may, from day to day.

Nor need this mother-marrying frighten you;

Many a man has dreamt as much. Such things

Must be forgotten, if life is to endured.’’

Jocasta is the middle and essential character, whose importance is apparent because of all the moves around her immediately or in a roundabout way. She is horrible as well after disclosing the simple fact and the speed of that simple fact giving nothing but his spend to loss of life in appearance of spending suicide.

Modern day importance of this play

Many elements of the present day understanding of the loss owe their source to Sophocles. It was he who created one essential character the middle determines (protagonist) and the concentrate of awareness in ever loss. As Aristotle details out, it was Sophocles, who designed his and building plots in such a way as to create change and recognition their essential element. You will sensation influenced by the disasters of Sophocles is that of admiration for individual’s lifestyle and prices and spend for those who drop a sufferer to their mistakes or the machinations of luck. The stability between character and luck is very well taken care of by Sophocles. The dialogues in Sophocles are also more lifestyle than is the situation in the engage in of Aeschylus. Sophocles school of imagined seems to have imagined greatly over the concerns which dilemma person’s location in the galaxy, as well as the part and success of the person in community by every Era of man. His operates best include the substance of Ancient lifestyle and lifestyle at one of the best details in its historical past. After Sophocles all other well-known dramatists used the same tolls such as Marlowe’s’ Dr.Faustas’ and amount dreadful composing of Shakespeare, Entire Liar, Macbeth, Othello, Town and winter’s Tale. In present day Era many playwrights considers in the same framework and they adhere to the design to be profitable on the earth of loss.

Conclusion

Undoubtedly, Oedipus Rex is the excellent loss of Appearance and simple fact, of deep rooted to mind criminal offenses, Pride of a king to pathos of a pure man, of character and luck, of reality of prejudice moreover, simple fact of understanding.  Oedipus Rex in not only the biggest engages in of Sophocles but also the biggest Ancient engages in. Accordingly, to many critics it is the biggest engage in ever published. Aristotle in the Poetics gives very higher reward to this engages in. It is also acknowledged with owning one of the three best-implemented and building plots in all excitement. In this engage in Sophocles operates the sensational of developing dreadful suspense through activities caused by which is known to the viewers beforehand. The change and the recognition in this engage in develop out of the engage in itself. It is very well incorporated engage in, no element of which can either be transposed or eventually missed. It can also be considered as first investigator story in materials. Its composition, especially in the lyrical odes, offers an excellent normal beauty and haunting energy. There would be no overstatement in saying that Oedipus Rex in one of the glories of American Literature. To sum up the engage in it is an suitable loss which underlines the frailty of individuals fun and success by revealing that simple fact and reality are bitterest in method of success if it supports harshness for them.

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The Crucible Study Guide and Summary

Posted on 02 November 2011 by Aajiz

Table of Contents

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The Crucible Context

Posted on 30 October 2011 by Aajiz

Arthur Miller, American playwright
Image via Wikipedia

In the season 1692, in the small Boston town of Salem, a selection of women dropped ill, decreasing sufferer to hallucinations and convulsions. In highly spiritual Puritan New Britain, distressing or stunning situations often credited to the demon or his cohorts. The unfathomable illness stimulated concerns of witchcraft, and it was not long before the women, and then many other people of Salem, started to accuse other villagers of consorting with challenges and launching periods. Old grudges and jealousies built out into the start, developing a climate of hysteria. The Boston administration and judicial system, intensely motivated by faith, thrown into actions. Within a couple months, many individuals were in offender on prices of witchcraft. By time the nausea had run its course, in later May 1692, twenty individuals (and two dogs) had charged and hanged for witchcraft.

More than two decades later, Arthur Burns was blessed in New You are able to Location on July 17, 1915. His job as a playwright started while he was a student at the School of The condition of Michigan. Several of his beginning will work won awards, and during his person season, the Government Theater Job in Detroit carried out one of his will work. He created his first good results, All My Kids, in 1947. Many years later, in 1949, Burns authored Passing of a Sales rep, which won the Pulitzer Reward and developed Burns into a nationwide feeling. Many experts described Passing of a Sales rep as the first good United States loss, and Burns accumulated an associated eminence as a man who recognized the heavy substance of the Joined Claims.

Drawing on analysis on the wizard tests he had carried out while a basic, Burns created The Crucible in the beginning 50′s. Burns authored the have fun with during the brief ascendancy of Senator John McCarthy, a demagogue whose vitriolic anti-Communism proven the kindle desired to move the Joined Claims into a stunning and fractious anti-Communist fervor during these first anxious many a lot of the Freezing War with the Soviet Nation. Led by McCarthy, unique congressional committees carried out highly questionable analysis designed to real out Communist sympathizers in the Joined Claims. As with the believed wizards of Salem, thought Communists were motivated to acknowledge and to recognize other Red sympathizers as means of avoiding treatment. The plan led to a flutter of suggestions. As individuals started to understand that they might be ruined as Communists regardless of their purity, many “cooperated,” seeking to preserve themselves through incorrect confessions, developing the graphic that the Joined Claims was crowded with Communists and perpetuating the hysteria. The generous leisure marketplace, in which Burns labored, was one of the primary focuses on of these “witch tracks,” as their competitors named them. Some cooperated; others, like Burns, declined to give in to pondering. Those who were unveiled, incorrectly or properly, as Communists, and those who declined to incriminate their acquaintances, saw their occupations experience, as they blacklisted from possible work for many years subsequently.

At use of its first operation, in the month of January of 1953, experts and forged as well recognized The Crucible as an immediate strike on McCarthyism (the plan of detecting out Communists). It is short run, in contrast to those of Miller’s other will work, and credited on anti-Communist fervor. When Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were opponent of spying for the Soviets and carried out, the forged and visitors of Miller’s have fun with discovered a second of stop. Still, there are problems with interpretation The Crucible as a demanding allegorical treatment of 50′s McCarthyism. For one thing, there were, as far as one can tell, no real wizards or devil-worshipers in Salem. However, there were certainly Communists in 50′s United States, and many of those who lionized as persons of McCarthyism sometimes, such as the Rosenbergs and Alger Hiss (a former State Section official), were later discovered to have been in the pay of the Soviet Nation. Miller’s Communist acquaintances, then, were often less simple than the persons of the Salem wizard tests, like the stalwart Rebecca Doctor or the terrible Bob Proctor.

If Burns took unknowing rights with information of his own era, he also carried out quick and reduce with the famous history. The common describe of activities in The Crucible compares to what occurred in Salem of 1692, but Miller’s character types are often composites. Furthermore, his middle plan device—the matter between Abigail Williams and Bob Proctor—has no grounding in fact (Proctor was over 60 at use of the tests, while Abigail was only eleven). Thus, Miller’s choice to set erectile envy at the real of the hysteria is really a stunning contrivance.

In an odd way, then, The Crucible is best go through outside its famous context—not as the best allegory for anti-Communism, or as a true consideration of the Salem tests, but as a very effective and amazing interpretation of how intolerance and hysteria can meet and split a area apart. In Bob Proctor, Burns gives people a wonderful terrible leading man for any time—a problem number who confirms his significant middle just as everything is decreasing to items around him.

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The Crucible Themes, Motifs & Symbols

Posted on 30 October 2011 by Aajiz

Themes

Lies and Deceit

Most of the character types in The Crucible are relaxing – if not to other persons, then to themselves. Abigail lies about her capability to see people, as do the other girls; Proctor is deceitful first for being unfaithful on his spouse and then for camouflaging it; and the assess and lieutenant governor and ministers lie to themselves and everybody else in saying that they offer the cause of God’s appropriate. The perspective in the tale is that by being truthful (“I am not a witch”), you die, but you also obtain your independence – that is, you keep your location with God, and you become a martyr.

 

Intolerance

The Crucible set in a theocratic area, in which the religious and the condition are one, and the faith is a demanding, austere type of Protestantism known as Puritanism. Because of the theocratic characteristics of the area, significant laws and regulations and condition laws and regulations are the same: sin and the location of your heart are issues of open worry. There is no place for difference from sociable rules, since any person whose confidential regular life does not comply with the well-known significant laws and regulations signifies an opportunity not only to the open great but also to the procedure of God and actual faith. In Salem, everything and everyone supposed to be to either God or the devil dissent not merely banned, it is associated with satanic task. This dichotomy features as the actual sense behind the wizard tests. As Danforth says in Act III, “a person is either with this court docket or he must be mentioned against it.” The wizard tests are the best appearance of intolerance (and clinging wizards is the best indicates of rejuvenating the community’s purity); the tests company all sociable deviants with the taint of devil-worship and thus require their treatment from the area.

 

Respect and Reputation

Reputation is very essential in an area where sociable location is associated with their capability to comply with along with spiritual regulations. Your great name is the only way you can get other persons to do enterprise with you or even get a reasonable experiencing. Of course, location recommended nothing when a witchcraft accusation was looking you in the experience. However, it is what designed the Reverend Hale start to uncertainty whether the opponent persons were actually responsible. Reputation had to do with religion: if you were a great and trusted person, you were also a great associate of the religious. Finally yet importantly, it is for the cause of his location and his friends standing that Bob Proctor will not hint an incorrect admission. He would, quite rather die.

 

Hysteria

Another essential style in The Crucible is the location that hysteria can have fun with in getting apart an area. Hysteria supplants sense and helps persons to believe that their friends, whom they have always regarded as upstanding persons, are spending ridiculous and fantastic crimes—communing with the demon, getting rid of kids, and so on. In The Crucible, the townsfolk take and become effective in the hysterical that you are not only out of actual spiritual piety but also because it gives them an opportunity to show repressed emotions and to act on long-held grudges. The most apparent situation is Abigail, who uses the circumstance to accuse Electronic Proctor of witchcraft and have her sent to offender. However, others blossom on the hysteria as well: Reverend Parris firms his location within the area, as well quickly, by creating scapegoats of people like Proctor whom problem his specialist. The abundant, serious Johnson Putnam results vengeance on Francis Doctor by getting Rebecca, Francis’s virtuous spouse, found responsible of the great killings of Ann Putnam’s kids. In the end, hysteria can blossom only because persons advantage from it. It suspends the regulations of lifestyle and allows the performing out of every dark-colored drive and hateful craving under include of righteousness.

 

The Supernatural

Salem townsfolk, they see information of God and information of the Devil everywhere. Yet nobody actually encounters people — though the women assert they do. They have fun with creates it distinct that they are performing. Their pretense may be a collection mental sensation, but on the earth as people knows it, if there is a Devil, he is not in Salem: there are only persons – some great, some deceived, some money, some envious, some vengeful, some nasty.

 

Motifs

 

Empowerment

The wizard tests encourage several character types in the have fun with who are in the past marginalized in Salem area. In common, women enjoy the smallest step of male-dominated Salem and have few choices in regular life. They operate as servants for townsmen until they are old enough to wed off and have kids of their own. Moreover, to being thus limited, Abigail is also servant to Bob Proctor’s erectile whims—he pieces away her purity when he commits infidelity with her, and he arouses her spiteful envy when he terminates their matter. Because the Puritans’ best worry is the defiance of God, Abigail’s suggestions of witchcraft and devil-worship quickly control the interest of the court docket. By aiming herself, in the little brown eyes of others, with God’s will, she results energy over area, as do the other ladies in her collection, and her expression becomes essentially unassailable, as do theirs. Tituba, whose location is cheaper than that of anyone else in the have fun with by advantage of the truth that she is dark-colored, is able to also to deflect responsibility from her by blaming others.

 

Accusations, Confessions, and Legal Proceedings

The wizard tests are middle to the actions of The Crucible, and stunning suggestions and confessions complete the have fun with even beyond the constraints of the court docket. In the first act, even before the hysteria takes place, we see Parris accuse Abigail of dishonoring him, and he then creates a line of suggestions against his parishioners. Giles Corey and Proctor answer in variety, and Putnam soon connects in, developing a refrain of indictments even before Hale comes. The full wizard test program grows on suggestions, the only way that wizards revealed, and confessions, which offer the facts of the appropriate of the court docket actions. Proctor efforts to crack this period with an admission of his own, when he says to the matter with Abigail, but this admission trumped by the accusation of witchcraft against him, which will requirements an admission. Proctor’s brave choice, at the shut of the have fun with, to die rather than acknowledge to a sin that he did not make, lastly fails the period. The court docket fails quickly subsequently, unfastened by the rejection of its persons to grow lies.

 

Symbols

 

The Witch Trials and McCarthyism

There is little importance within The Crucible, but, in its whole, they have fun with can seen as synonymous with the worry about communism that pervaded United States in the 50′s. Several commonalities are available between the Home Un-American Pursuits Committee’s rooting out of thought communists during this some time to the seventeenth-century witch-hunt that Burns signifies in The Crucible, such as the narrow-mindedness, increased energy, and disregard for the persons that define the government’s efforts to press out a recognized sociable ill. Further, as with the believed wizards of Salem, thought Communists were motivated to acknowledge their violations and to “name brands,” determining others considerate to their major cause. Some have belittled Burns for oversimplifying issues, in that while there were (as far as we know) no actual wizards in Salem, there were certainly Communists in 50′s United States. However, one can dispute that Miller’s worry in The Crucible is not with whether the opponent actually are wizards, but rather with the disinclination of the court docket authorities to believe that they are not. In lighting of McCarthyist extravagances, which harmed many innocents, this similar thought powerfully in Miller’s own time.

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The Crucible Analysis of Major Characters

Posted on 30 October 2011 by Aajiz

The Crucible Research of Significant Characters

John Proctor

In a feeling, The Crucible has the design of an established loss, with Bob Proctor as the play’s dreadful top man. Genuine, straight, and blunt-spoken, Proctor is an excellent man, but one with a technique, dangerous drawback. His lust for Abigail Williams led to their matter (which happens before they have fun with begins), and designed Abigail’s envy of his spouse, Electronic, which models the entire wizard hysteria in movement. Once the tests start, Proctor knows that he can quit Abigail’s Quinton Jackson through Salem but only if he confesses to his infidelity. Such classes would damage his good name, and Proctor is, above all, an excited man who locations good stress on his status. He gradually creates a test, through Kim Warren’s account, to name Abigail as frauds without disclosing the critical details. When this test neglects, he lastly jolts out with a classes, contacting Abigail a “whore” and stating his shame widely. Only then does he understand that it is too later, that issues have gone too far, and that not even the easy fact can crack the highly effective madness that he has granted Abigail to beat up. Proctor’s classes are successful only in creating his charge and sentence as a wizard, and though he lambastes the courtroom and its measures, he is conscious of his dreadful position in enabling this fervor to increase out of hand.

Proctor redeems himself and provides any denunciation of the wizard tests in his remaining act. Available to be able to create open classes of his shame and stay, he almost succumbs, even putting your signature on itemized classes. His great pleasure and worry of open viewpoint motivated him to withhold his infidelity from the courtroom, but by the end of the have, fun with he is more anxious with his private reliability than his open status. He still wants to preserve his name, but for private and spiritual, rather than open, causes. Proctor’s rejection to offer incorrect classes is a real spiritual and private take a position. Such classes would dishonor his other criminals, who are courageous enough to die as account to the easy fact. Perhaps more relevantly, incorrect classes would also dishonor him, staining not just his open status, but also his center. By question to present up his private reliability Proctor implicitly proclaims his sentence that such reliability will take him to paradise. He goes to the gallows used for his in the past sins. As Electronic says to end the have fun with, addressing Hale’s request that she influence Proctor to widely confess: “He have his benefits now. God prohibit I take it from him!”

 

Abigail Williams

Of the key number types, Abigail is the least complicated. She is clearly the bad person of the have fun with, more so than Parris or Danforth: she shows is, manipulates her acquaintances and the entire area, and gradually delivers twenty easy individuals to their significant. Throughout the hysteria, Abigail’s causes never seem more complicated than easy envy and a wish to have vengeance on Electronic Proctor. The expressions of the have fun with is almost spiritual, and Abigail seems like a spiritual character—a Jezebel number, motivated only by libido and a lust for energy. Nevertheless, it is value going out a few historical past details that, though they never reduce Abigail’s shame create her measures more clear.

Abigail is an orphan and a single girl; she thus uses up a low step on the Puritan Salem sociable steps (the only individuals below her are the slaves, like Tituba, and sociable outcasts). For area in Salem, the reverend and the other men parents are God’s earthly staff, their professional resulting from on substantial. The tests, then, in which the women are granted to act as though they have an immediate relationship to God, encourage the in the past weak Abigail. Once shunned and scorned by the decent townsfolk who had observed speculation of her matter with Bob Proctor, Abigail now confirms that she has energy, and she requires entire edge of it. A pure accusation from one of Abigail’s troop is enough to incarcerate and convict even the most well respected inhabitant of Salem. Whereas others once reproached her for her infidelity, she now has to be able to accuse them of the most detrimental sin of all: devil-worship.

 

Reverend Hale

John Hale, the mental, naïve witch-hunter, goes into the have fun with in Act I when Parris brings him to study his child, Kim. In a prolonged comments on Hale in Act I, Burns details him as “a tight-skinned, eager-eyed mental. This is a dearest errand for him; on being referred to as here to assess witchcraft he has thought the pleasure of the professional whose exclusive details has at last been widely referred to as for.” Hale goes into in a quantity of task, having significant guides and predicting an air of good details. In the beginning going, he is the energy behind the wizard tests, searching for confessions and stimulating individuals to admit. Over the course of the have fun with, however, he ordeals modify, one more amazing than that of any other number. Enjoying Bob Proctor and Kim Warren, he becomes certain that they, not Abigail, are being truthful. In the climactic world in the courtroom in Act III, he includes his lot in with those the other the wizard tests. In dreadful trend, his about-face comes too late—the tests will in his palms but rather in those of Danforth and the theocracy, which has no desire in seeing its measures revealed as a fraud.

The failing of his efforts to move the hold creates the once-confident Hale a damaged man. As his thinking in witchcraft falters, so does his trust in the law. In Act IV, he counsels the opponent wizards to lie, to acknowledge their designed sins to preserve their own day-to-day lives. In his modify of center and following lose hope, Hale results the audience’s concern but not its regard, since he does not have the significant fiber of Rebecca Doctor or, as it changes out, Bob Proctor. Although Hale knows the nasty of the wizard tests, his effect is not defiance but submit. He demands that success is the best good, even if therefore flexible on your own to injustice—something that the truly courageous number types can never take.

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The Crucible Character List

Posted on 27 October 2011 by Aajiz

Bob Proctor – A regional character who day-to-day lives just outside town; Electronic Proctor’s man. A firm, harsh-tongued man, Bob cannot stand hypocrisy. Nevertheless, he has a disguised. Sin—his matter with Abigail Williams—that shows his problem. When the hysteria takes place, he hesitates to present Abigail as swindles because he problems that his technique will be unveiled and his great name damaged.

Read an in-depth research of Bob Proctor.

Abigail Williams – Reverend Parris’s relative. Abigail was once the cleaning for the Proctor family, but Electronic Proctor shot her after she uncovered that Abigail was having a matter with her man, Bob Proctor. Abigail is sensible, wily, a great liar, and vindictive when surpassed.

Read an in-depth research of Abigail Williams.

Reverend Bob Hale – A fresh reverend well known to be a specialist on witchcraft. Reverend Hale referred to as in to Salem to analyze Parris’s kid Kim. Hale is a devoted Religious and hater of witchcraft. His essential brain and brains preserve him from decreasing into shades fervor. His introduction models the hysteria in movement, although he later remorse his measures and efforts to preserve the day-to-day lives of those opponent.

Read an in-depth research of Reverend Bob Hale.

Elizabeth Proctor – Bob Proctor’s spouse. Electronic shot Abigail when she uncovered that her man was having a matter with Abigail. Electronic is extremely virtuous, but often freezing.

Reverend Parris – The reverend of Salem’s religious. Reverend Parris is a weird, power-hungry, yet curiously self-pitying number. Many of the townsfolk, especially Bob Proctor, do not like him, and Parris is very anxious with developing his location in the area.

Rebecca Doctor – Francis Nurse’s spouse. Rebecca is a sensible, sensible, and straight person, used in enormous consider by most of the Salem area. However, she drops sufferer to the hysteria when the Putnams accuse her of witchcraft and she will not acknowledge.

Francis Doctor – An abundant, significant man in Salem. Doctor well known by most individuals in Salem, but is an adversary of Johnson Putnam and his spouse.

Judge Danforth – The deputy governor of Boston and the presiding assess at the wizard tests. Genuine and scrupu-lous, at least in his own brain, Danforth is certain that he is doing right in rooting out witchcraft.

Giles Corey – An aged but energetic character in Salem, well known for his habit to submit cases. Giles’s spouse, Martha, is opponent of witchcraft, and he himself gradually used in disregard of courtroom and sent to passing with significant gems.

Thomas Putnam -  A abundant, significant person of Salem, Putnam supports a grudge against Francis Doctor for avoiding Putnam’s brother-in-law from being chosen to the company of reverend. He uses the wizard tests to improve his own success by blaming individuals of witchcraft and then getting up their area.

Ann Putnam – Johnson Putnam’s spouse. Ann Putnam has given beginning to eight kids, but only Ruth Putnam made it. The other seven passed away before they were a day old, and Ann is certain that they killed by great indicates.

Ruth Putnam – The Putnams’ one remaining kid out of eight. Like Kim Parris, Ruth drops into an unusual stupor after Reverend Parris attracts her and the other women moving in the wood in the evening.

Tituba – Reverend Parris’s dark-colored servant from Barbados. Tituba wants to complete voodoo at Abigail’s demand.

Mary Warren – The cleaning in the Proctor family and an associate of Abigail’s number of women. She is a fearful fresh woman, effortlessly motivated by those around her, who tried unsuccessfully to present the hoax and gradually recanted her admission.

Betty Parris – Reverend Parris’s ten-year-old kid. Kim drops into an unusual stupor after Parris attracts her and the other women moving in the do with Tituba. Her disease and that of Ruth Putnam energy the first speculation of witchcraft.

Martha Corey – Giles Corey’s third spouse. Martha’s looking at routines head to her charge and sentence for witchcraft.

Ezekiel Cheever – A man from Salem who functions as worker of the courtroom during the wizard tests. He is straight and established to do his work for legal.

Judge Hathorne – A assess who presides, along with Danforth, over the wizard tests.

Herrick – The marshal of Salem.

Mercy Lewis – One of the women in Abigail’s collection.

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The Crucible Summary

Posted on 27 October 2011 by Aajiz

In the Puritan New Britain area of Salem, Boston, a variety of women goes moving in the do with a dark-colored servant known as Tituba. While moving, they captured by the regional reverend, Reverend Parris. One of the women, Parris’s child Kim, drops into a coma-like condition. An audience records in the Parris house while speculation of witchcraft completes the area. Having sent for Reverend Hale, a specialist on witchcraft, Parris concerns Abigail Williams, the girls’ ringleader, about the actions that took
spot in the do. Abigail, who is Parris is relative and keep, says to do nothing beyond “dancing.”

While Parris tries to peaceful the audience that has obtained in his house, Abigail discussions to some of the other women,  showing them not to acknowledge to anything. Bob Proctor, a regional character, then goes into and discussions to Abigail alone. Unknowingly to anyone else in the area, while performing in Proctor’s house the season before she employed in a matter with him, which led to her being shot by his spouse, Electronic. Abigail still needs Proctor, but he finds her off and shows her to end her nonsense with the women.

Betty awakens and takes spot crying. Much of the audience pushes in and records in her room, quarrelling over whether she bewitched. A different debate between Proctor, Parris, the argumentative Giles Corey, and the abundant Johnson Putnam soon arises. This argument facility on revenue and area actions and it indicates that heavy problem collections run through the Salem area. As the man’s argument, Reverend Hale comes and exams Kim, while Proctor leaves. Hale quizzes Abigail about the girls’ actions in the do, expands dubious of her conduct, and requirements to discuss with Tituba. After Parris and Hale question her for a brief time, Tituba confesses to communing with the demon, and she hysterically accuses various townsfolk of consorting with the demon. Instantly, Abigail connects her, confessing to having seen the demon conspiring and cavorting with other townspeople. Kim connects them in identifying wizards, and the audience cast into an uproar.

A Soon after, alone in their farmhouse outside of area, Bob and Electronic Proctor discuss the continuous tests and the growing variety of townsfolk who have been opponent of being wizards. Electronic tendencies her man to denounce Abigail as a fraud, he declines, and she becomes envious, blaming him of still harboring thoughts for her. Kim Warren, their cleaning and one of Abigail’s range, results from Salem with information that Electronic has been opponent of witchcraft but the courtroom did not practice the accusation. Kim sent up to bed, and Bob and Electronic precede their debate, only to upset by a check out from Reverend Hale. While they discuss issues, Giles Corey and Francis Doctor come to the Proctor house with information that their spouse captured. Authorities of the courtroom suddenly appear and fee Electronic. After they have taken her, Proctor browbeats Kim, requiring that she must go to Salem and present Abigail and the other women as frauds.

The next day, Proctor creates Kim to courtroom and shows Assess Danforth that she will acknowledge that the women are relaxing. Danforth is dubious of Proctor’s causes and shows Proctor, truthfully, which Electronic is expecting and will be able to escape for some time. Proctor remains in his fee, genuine Danforth to allow Kim to acknowledge. Kim shows the courtroom that the women are relaxing. When the women introduced in, they shine a light by blaming Kim of bewitching them. Mad,
Proctor confesses his matter with Abigail and accuses her of being encouraged by envy of his spouse. To look at Proctor has assert, Danforth creates Electronic and requirements her if Proctor has been unfaithful to her. Despite her normal reliability, she is to secure Proctor’s recognize, and Danforth denounces Proctor as a liar. Meanwhile, Abigail and the women again say that
Kim is bewitching them, and Kim fails down and accuses Proctor of being a wizard. Proctor rages against her and against the courtroom. He captured, and Hale leaves the actions.

The summer time goes and fall comes. The wizard tests have induced unrest in border areas, and Danforth expands scared. Abigail has run away, getting all of Parris’s revenue with her. Hale, who has dropped trust in the courtroom, indicates the opponent wizards to acknowledge incorrectly keeping their day-to-day lives, but they decline. Danforth, however, has an idea: his requirements Electronic to discuss Bob into confessing, and she wants. Conflicted, but wanting to stay, Bob wants to acknowledge, and the officers of the courtroom delight. However, he will not incriminate anyone else, and when the courtroom requirements that the classes published, Proctor expands mad, hole it up, and retract his classes of shame. Despite Hale’s anxious pleas, Proctor
goes to the gallows with the others, and the wizard tests arrive at their dreadful summary.

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‘A Doll’s House’ Full Study Guide

Posted on 13 August 2011 by Aajiz

Theme

After eight years of marriage, Nora realizes that she has never been a partner in her marriage and Helmer treated her like ‘Doll’. Nora’s husband was so rude person. The feminist showing of a good middle-class wife and mother. At the end, she
leaves her husband in order to show an identity for herself that is separate from her identity as a wife and mother.

Main Characters

Torvald Helmer
Nora
Krogstad
Dr.Rank

1-Torvald Helmer

He is an argument person who is the husband She is Torvald’s wife who is treated like a child by her husband. She leaves her husband and children at the end. Nora borrowed money from that person. He is an admired of Nora. He has a disease of TB. At the end of play, announces his death.

2- Nora
She is Torvald’s wife who is treated like a child by her husband. She leaves her husband and children at the end.

3- Krogstad
Nora borrowed money from that person.

4-Dr. Rank
He is an admired of Nora. He has a disease of TB. At the end of play, announces his death.

Minor Characters

1- Christine Linde
2- The children
1- Christine Linde

Nora’s friend who comes to Nora and insists her to ask her husband for a job.

2- The children

Nora treats her children like dolls and play with them.

Setting

Helmer’s Apartment. The play takes place at the apartment.

Study:

There some off-stage action takes place. A door leads from the stage into an imaginary room.

Ballroom:

The place where Nora danced the Tarantella.

Summary

While she eats macaroons, Dr. Rank and Mrs. Linde enter. Rank starts speaking with Torwald while Linde speaks with Nora. Linde insists her to ask her husband to give Linde a job at the bank. Actually she needs a job because her husband has died. At that time, Nora tells her about borrowing money to pay for the trip to Italy for her and her husband. She also says to her , Torvald doesn’t know that she paid for it. Rank speaks with Nora and Linde, He complains about the moral corruption in society. Krogstad arrives and talk to Torvald about keeping his job. A few minutes later, he leaves and Rank comments that Krogstad is one of the most corrupt people in the world. Ranks leaves and Nora asks her husband not to fire Krogstad. But her husband says that he must fire him because of his dishonesty and because he gave Krogstad’s job to Linde. The Nurse, Anne-Marie, enters and gives Nora her ball gown. Anne-Marie explains that she had to leave her children to take the job taking care of Nora. Anne-Marie leaves. Linde returns and begins to help Nora with stitching up her dress. They talk for a while about Dr.Rank. Nora asks Torvald again not to fire Krogstad but Torvald refuses. He gives Krogstad’s pink slip to the maid to be mailed to Krogstad. Rank enters and tells Nora about his worsening illness. They talk and flirt for a while. Rank tells Nora that he loves her. Nora said that she never loved Rank and only had fun with him. Rank leaves and Krogstad enters. He is angry about his dismissal and leaves a letter to Tarvald explaining Nora’s entire crime in the letter box. Nora is frightened, Nora tells Linde about the matter and Linde assures her that she will talk to Krogstad and set things straight. Linde leaves after Krogstad and Rank and Torvald enter. They help Nora practice the Tarantella.
After practice, Rank and Tarvald exists. Linde enters and tells Nora that Krogstad left town, but she left a note for him.
Nora tells Linde that she’s waiting for a miracle to happen. That night, during the dance, Linde talks to Krogstad in Helmer’s apartment. She explains to him that she left him for money, but that she still loves him. They get back together and Krogstad decides to forget about the whole matter of Nora’s borrowing money. Linde requests Krogstad not to ask for his letter back since she thinks Torvald needs to know of it. Both leave and Torvald and Nora enter from the dance.
Torvald checks his letter box and finds some letters and two Business cards from Dr.Rank with black crosses on them. Nora explains that they mean that Rank is announcing his death. After the bad news, Tarvald enters and Nora prepares to leave. Before, she can get out the door; she is stopped by Torvald who read Krogstad’s letter. He is angry and disavows his love for Nora. The maid comes with a letter. Torvald read the letter which is from Krogstad. It says that he forgives Nora of her crime and will not reveal it. Torvald burns the letter along with the IOU that came with it. He is happy and tells Nora that everything will return to normal. Nora changes and returns to talk with Helmer. She tells him that they don’t understand each other and she leaves him.

Symbols

  • ‘Black hat’ and ‘black cross’ Symbolizes ‘death’
  • ‘Fisher girl costume’ Symbolizes ‘pretending to enjoy her life’
  • ‘Italy’ Symbolizes ‘the good false image of Nora’s life’
  • ‘Norway’ Symbolizes ‘reality’
  • ‘Doll House’ Symbolizes ‘the tendency of the characters to play roles’
  • ‘Toys’ Symbolizes ‘the act of pushing the roles into Nora’s children’
  • ‘Macaroons’ Symbolizes ‘Nora’s deceit to her husband’
  • ‘Tarantella’ Symbolizes ‘Nora’s agitation at her struggle with Krogstad and with her husband’
  • ‘Christmas tree’ Symbolizes ‘the mood of the play’
  • ‘Stockings’ Symbolizes Nora’s attitude trying to please men and her flirting with Rank’
  • ‘Letter box’ and letter Symbolizes ‘a trap for Nora and the cause of her demise’
  • ‘Embroidery’ Symbolizes ‘the stereotypes pressed on woman’
  • ‘Ring’ Symbolizes ‘the marriage, and the end of it’
  • ‘Skylark’ Symbolizes ‘the way that Tarvald treats Nora like a child’

By: Aqsa Riaz

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