Archive | History Of English Language

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Language in The 19th Century

Posted on 07 August 2011 by Aajiz


• Historical linguistics in the 19th and 12th centuries held views on language that were based on a long tradition going back to the Greeks.


  • Linguistics dealt with the sound system, the system of forms and their order and the lexicon of languages with out inter-relating these three components of language.
  • Since students of languages were especially concerned with dead languages, notably Latin and Greek, grammars gave most attention to the problems faced in dealing with these languages.


  • “This is the way, a change in the form of a word to show it’s grammatical, function, or gender”.
  • The English language has been variously divided into the period by different writers. It is traditionally described as having through 4 major stages ever about 1500 years.
  • Old English or Anglo-Saxon (0500-1050). More inflection.
  • Middle English (1050-1550). Least inflection.
  • Modern English (1550-1700). Nominal inflection.
  • Late modern English (1700-till now)

Through extensive, exploration, colonization, and trade English spread worldwide 17th century on ward and remain the most important international language of trade and technology.


  • The events of 19th and 20th centuries affecting the English speaking countries have been of great political and social importance but their effect on the language. They have not been revolutionary characters.
  • A list air penny cook in his book” the cultural politics of English is a 2nd language”.
  • In addition, English is language most widely thought as a foreign language, in more than 100 countries.
  • When language has been become well integrated in to a country’s, politics, business, dealings, education and every day lives, it becomes a necessary elements for sustaining that society and its culture.
  • The war against Russia in the Crimea and the contest with the native’s princess in India had the effect of given turning English attention to the east.
  • The great reforms measures, the re-organization of parliament the revision of the penal code and poor laws were important factors in establishing English society on democratic basis.
  • They lessened the distance between upper and lower classes and greatly increased the opportunities for population to share economic and cultural advantages available at that time.
  • The establishment of news paper (1816) and the improved means of travel and communication had the effect of uniting more closely the different parts of England.
  • Some other changes and events are reflected in English vocabulary.


  • Science has made many discoveries and progress in the field of medicine, electricity, physics, and atomic energy etc.
  • In every field of science, pure and applied, these have been need in the last hundred years for thousands of new terms.
  • Medicine: in the field of medicine this is particularly apparent. Now different words of medicine are use in our daily life homeopathic, bronchitis, bacteriology, anemia etc. Names of drugs: aspirin, iodine, insulin, penicillin. Words like cholesterol are now the part of everyone’s vocabulary.
  • All of these words have come in the use during the 19th and in some cases, in 20th century.
  • Electricity: in the field of electricity words like commentator, alternating current and light have been in the language since 1870.
  • Physics: physics has made us familiar with the terms like calorie, electron, ionization, radioactive, hydrogen bomb etc.
  • Psychology: the psychologist has taught has taught us words like extrovert, introvert. And among the most publicized events of the 1960’s and 1970’s were the achievements of science and engineering in the exploration of space.
  • Words like launch pad, count down, blast off are the words which relates to space science.

Addition to astronaut and cosmonaut.
1. Astronaut: someone who travels in space.
2. Cosmonaut: a Russian astronaut. And we all have scientifically mind.

  • Scientific discoveries and inventions: automobile: example, car. Film: a story or event recorded by a camera. Broadcasting: transmit on radio or television.


  • War between 1914 __1918
  • Sector: a distinct area or part. Sector was used in the sense of a specific portion of the fighting line.
  • There are 5 machines of enemy.
  • Barrage: originally an artificial barrier like a dam in a river.
  • Artillery or machine-gun: designated a protective screen of heavy artillery or machine-gun fire.
  • Dud: a general word for any count filet thing.
  • Counterfeit: worked as to deceive or cheat people.
  • Shell: that was specifically applied to a shell that did not explode.
  • Ace: acquired the meaning of a crack airman.
  • Hand grenade: hand grenade went back to 1661, but attained new currency during the war.
  • Great currency of words: some words which were either new or enjoyed great currency during the war, priority, tooling up, ceiling, bottle neck have become a part of the vocabulary of civilian life.


  • The date when a new word enters Language is in general the date when the object, experience, observation or whatever it has entered their consciousness.
  • Oxford dictionary: oxford dictionary which furnished us with dated quotations showing when the different meanings of every word first appear in the language.


• We find growing up a word like horsepower and Horsepower: a unit measuring the power of an engine. Lithograph: a print made by lithography. Lithography means printing from a flat metal surface which has been prepared that ink sticks only where it is required.

In the last quarter of the 19th century:
An interesting story of progress is told by new words or new meanings such as typewriter, telephone, motorcycle, introduced in 1896.


  • About 1910 we began talking about the future.
  • Dictaphone, raincoat and thermos became a part of the recorded vocabulary in 1907 and free verse in 1908.



  • Borrowing: it will be convenient to examine here, an illustration of the process by which a language extends its vocabulary.
  • Many of the new words have been taken over ready made from the people from whom the idea or the thing designated has been obtained.
  • Example: sky line formerly meant the horizon, but it is now common in such an expression as the New York skyline.
  • Broadcast: originally had reference to seed but its implication to radio seems entirely appropriate from French come chauffeur, from Spanish, the way of United States, bonanza.


  • A second source of new words is represented in the practice of making self-explaining compounds. A self explaining compound is the one of the oldest methods of word formation in the language.
  • In earlier editions words like fingerprint, know how, lipstick, stream roller were mentioned as being rather new.
  • Now some of the more recent formations are made such  as think tank, skydiving, and body language, life style, put on.


1. “compounds formed from Greek & Latin elements”:

The same method may be employed in forming words elements derived from Greek and Latin. Eugenics is formed with 2 Greek roots, eu-meaning well, and yes-meaning to born. The world therefore means well born and is applied to the efforts to bring about well born offspring by the selection of healthy parents.

2. “sources of new words-borrowing”:

English disposition to borrow words from other languages in the past, many new words have been taken over ready-made from the people. From French comes chauffeur.

3. “prefixes and suffixes”:

The addition in the start of word is called prefixes. Sub=substandard, extra=extraordinary. The addition in the end of word is called suffixes. Help=helpless, kind=kindness, love=loveable.

4. “coinages”:

A considerable number of new words must be attributed to deliberate invention or coinage. They are mostly the product of ingenuity and imitation, the two being blended in variable proportions. Thus the trademark “Kodak” which seems to be pure invention was popularly used for years to refer to cameras of any brand.

5. “common words from proper names”:
Another source from which many English words have been derived in the past is the names of persons and places. Everyone is aware that morocco is derived from the corresponding proper name.

6. “grammatical tendencies”:

The substitution of “you were” for “you was” in singular occurs about 1820, and it is I is now often considered a social test where propriety is expected. Subjunctive mood in occasional use has disappeared except in conditions contrary to fact (if I were you).

7. “verb__adverb combinations”:

An important characteristic of the modern vocabulary is the large number like: set-out, gather up, put off, bring in, and made up of a common verb combined with an adverb.

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The Appeal To Authority,History Of English Language

Posted on 04 August 2011 by Aajiz


  • THE FIRST HALF OF 18TH CENTURY KNOWN as an Augustan age. 18th century is commonly designated in histories of literature as the Augustan age.
  • Augustan age was the “age of sensibility” People wanted to get knowledge and got benefits from it .people of that era were become more well-mannered then before.


  • During the half century preceding, the principal characteristics of this period may be seen taking from and in the fifty years following it they are still clearly visible and however mixed with new tendencies foreign to it. The characteristics of this period are given blow.
  • One of these characteristics to be mentioned is a strong sense of order and the value of regulation. Adventurous individualism and the spirit of independence characteristic of the previous era give way to a desire for system and regularity.


  • The spirit of scientific rationalism in philosophy was reflected in many other domains of thought. A great satisfaction was felt in things that could be logically explained justified.


  • In 18TH century efforts to standardize refine and fix the English language. In this period under consideration discussion of a language takes new turn. Previously interest had been shown chiefly in such questions as.
  • Whether English was worthy of being used for writing in which Latin had long been traditional?
  • Whether the large additions being made to the vocabulary were justified?
  • Whether a more accurate system of spelling could be introduced.
  • In this period at first time attention was turned to the grammar. It was discovered that English had no grammar at that time.
  • They finally came to this point that English language needs corrections and refinements.English has been and is being daily corrupted that it needs correction and refinement and that when the necessary reforms have been affected. It should be fixed permanently.
  • In short it was the desire, need and requirement of 18th century to give the English language a polished, rational and permanent form.


  • 18th century’s attempts to rearrange the English language.
  • Arranged and direct its course under 3 main heads.

To reduce it.

  • The language to rule and set up a standard of correct usage

To refine it.

  • To remove supposed defect and introduce certain improvement.

To fix it.

  • It should be permanently fixed in perfect and desired form.

One of the biggest causes of English which people became actually conscious in the latter part of the 17th century was the absence of a standard.
The fact that language had not been reduced to rule so that a man could express himself at least with the assurance that he was doing so correctly.


  • The lack of standard to which all might conform was believed to have resulted in many corruptions which were growing up unchecked.
  • It is the subject of frequent lament that for some time the language had been steadily going down.
  • Such observations are generally accompanied by a regretful backward glance at the good old days. Various periods in the past were supposed to represent the highest perfection of English. For example: Chaucer’s poetry /  words worth’s poetry / Shelly’s and Keats’s poetry.
  • There were chiefly innovations which he says had been growing up in the last 20 years.

One of these was tendency to clip and shorten words which should which should have retained their full polysyllabic dignity. Like: rep for reputation, ult for ultimate, extra for extraordinary.
A second was the tendency to contract verbs. Like: drug’d, disturb’d, rebuk’d and thousand others everywhere to be met with in prose as well as verse where by leaving out a vowel to save a syllable.
A third innovation which aroused Swift’s ire has to do with certain words then enjoying a considerable vogue among wits and people of fashion. They use words like: cutting, shuffling and palming.


  • All of these faults which swift found in the language he attached in a letter to the Tattler in 1710 and he called attention to them again 2 years later in his proposal for correcting, improving and ascertaining the English language.


  • Italy and France were the countries to which the English had long turned for inspiration and example, and in both of these lands the destiny of the language had been confided to an Academy. In Italy the most famous Academy was the “Academia Della crusader” founded as early as 1582. It’s for the purification of the Italian Language.
  • Perhaps an even more effective precedent was furnished by France. In 1635 “ Cardinal Richelieu” offered a royal charter to a small group of men who for several years had been meeting once a week to talk about books and to exchange views on literature. The original group was compose of only 6 or 8 the maximum membership was set at 40.this Society was to be known as the “French Academy”.


An idea to the establishment of an academy in England came from the example of France and Italy.

  • In England in 1570 , when a Society of Antiquaries founded by Archbishop Parker began holding its meeting at the house of Sir Robert Cotton, and he occupied itself with the study of Antiquity and History. It might in time have turned its attention to the improvements of the language.
  • With the Restoration discussion of an English Academy became much more frequent.
  • In the very year that Charles 2 was restored to the throne, a volume was published with the new Atlantis… continued by R.H Esquire 1660 in which as a feature of his ideal commonwealth, the author Pictured Academy. Those attempts were held to make the English Language perfect.
  • A few months later the Royal Society took a step which might have let it to serve the purpose of an Academy. This Society founded in 1662 was mainly scientific in its interest but in December 1664 it adopted a resolutions to the effect that “Their were persons of the society whose genius was very proper and inclined to improve the English language”. Particularly for philosophic purpose. It was voted that there should be a committee for improving the English. The most prominent persons are Dryden, Evelyn, Sprat and Waller.
  • Finally translations might be made of some of the best of Greek and Latin literature and even out of modern language, as models of elegance in style.
  • John Dryden was the most outstanding figure who worked very hard for the improvement of English language. Professor Emerson thought that “The moving spirit in the gesture of the Royal Society was John Dryden”. Though he was certainly not a pioneer in suggesting the creation of an English Academy. He was the most distinguished and consistent advocate of it in public. Later he seems to have joined forces with the earl of Roscommon.


  • Dryden who wished for the establishment of an English language. He should wish earnestly for the establishment
    of an English linguistic academy. He wrote the Dedication to the “Rival Ladies”. In result the Royal Society showed an active interest in language.
  • The committee had established for this purpose. It consisted of 22 persons including these great personalities. John Dryden, John Evelyn, Edmund Waller and Thomas sprat, Bishop of Rochester.
  • Standard English Dictionary which was meant for “Correcting, Improving, and Ascertaining fixing” the English language.
  • Swift gave an idea for improving the language standard but he could not succeed in establishment of an English Academy. A few years later 2 books on English Grammar were brought out by Joseph Priestly and Robert Lowth.


The grammar books by Priestly and Lowth were followed by other, the most important of which was “Lindsey Murray’s English Grammar of 1875”. This was followed by Alexander Brian’s “Higher English Grammar of 1863”.
“A New English Grammar Logical Historical” wrote by Henry Sweet.

  • A part from Sweet’s work no Comprehensive Grammar have been produced in England though excellent works were produced in American by Krapp, Kennedy and Crum.
  • The most elaborate work on English Grammar has been produced by the three Dutchmen H.Poutsman, Etsko Kruisiga, and R.W.Zand.


  • The great Scandinavian Anglicist, Otto Jesperson, who published the 1st part of his book “Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles” in 1909. And died in 1943 while working on the 6th and 7th parts of the work which were later complete by 3 of his brilliant students in the University of Copenhagen.
  • In the 1st part of the book, Jesperson deals with Sounds and Spellings.
  • In the 6th part of his book, He deals with Morphology while the rest of the book is devoted to the study of Syntax.
  • The book is thus primarily a Descriptive Grammar of Current English with a Historical out look.
  • “The Essentials of English Grammar” published in 1933.
  • With meekness and humility this Scandinavian Writer on English Grammar refrained from telling his English. He was content with recording and explaining the actual facts of English usage in various periods.


  • The 7th volume Grammar book of Jesperson bears Comparison with the greatest achievement of English language in one respect.

“The New English Dictionary on Historical Principles” popularly known as “The Oxford English Dictionary” like Jesperson’s Grammar, contains a wealth of perfect quotations. It is the standard Dictionary of  the British Commonwealth and of the United States of America.

  • The Oxford Dictionary is now universally accepted as the highest authority, on all aspects of the language. It has influenced our whole attitude to language and has been helpful in raising the standards of all the smaller Dictionaries for schools and home use.


  • As we know that the Oxford Dictionary has now become the highest authority on all aspects of English usages. Daniel Jones’s “An English Pronouncing Dictionary” containing the pronunciations of all words in International Phonetic Transcription has become accepted as the best authority in matters of Pronunciations.
  • Daniel Jones’s pronouncing Dictionary gives us the records of a form of speech which the greatest number of educated people in the English Speaking world have found both pleasing and intelligible.


  • Philological Society organized in 1842 with an initial membership of about 200 persons has been meeting regularly in London, Oxford, Cambridge and northern Universities.
  • The professed object of their meeting has been investigating of “The Structure Affinities and History of Language”.
  • Very early in its History the society embarked upon 2 very commendable projects.

The collection of good English Dictionary and  the editing of unpublished texts in Old and Middle English.


  • The English Association was established in 1906 as a society of unrestricted membership, which seeks by meant of “Lectures, Discussions, Readings, Conferences and Publications” to write and introduce to one another those who interested in English Language and Literature, whether as Writer, Teachers, Artists, Actors or Administrators.
  • It also encouraged the new young Writers to publish their work.
  • It also professed to uphold the standard of English Writing and Speech.


  • The Society for English which was founded in 1913 by Robert Bridges has exercised its beneficial influence over English usages for about 34 years.
  • During this period it had published several, highly specialized and informative tracts.
  • Robert Bridges has believed that the purity of English could be presented not by any foolish interference with living developments.
  • The original members of the society included such eminent scholars as Sir William Caraige, H.W.Fowler, G.S.Gordon and L.P.Smith. But these Scholars passed away the society died because no more material of the quality imagine by them was forthcoming.


Firstly we have talked about “The temper of the 10th century. As we know that there were not proper forms of English language. Then we came to know the reflection towards the language. We have talked about the problems that accrued when the efforts of establishments started. People wanted to fix and refine the rules of grammars, vocabulary and verbs. That time people took inspiration from Italy and France, because that time they were established and polished languages, they run academies for betterment of their languages. So they thought, and feel need of academy where they work for languages. For this purpose Swift wrote letter to Royal family to seek help but they ignored, in result he failed. After him Dryden succeed for the establishment of academy. Then Johnson gave the outstanding work to arrange the dictionary. Daniel Jones arranged the dictionary for meanings, for transcription of words he worked on sounds and also syntax.
so in the last I would like to say that the Oxford dictionary become the highest authority in the whole world now a days we used it in every offices, schools, colleges, universities and homes as well”.


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English Present and Future

Posted on 28 July 2011 by Aajiz

The history of English language a cultural subject
He was the remarkable chronicler of  twelfth century. He was Henry of Huntington who observed that the interest in the past was a very outstanding quality of a man as compared to the other animals. When the cultivated man and woman is conscious about his deficiencies of education without having much known about the past he was urged  to discover even his mother tongue. The ways of his communication Science, Philosophy or Poetry is surely the worthy of  study. But it is also not sure that all the people follow these things. Also not all even the educated person should really know about  his language. He is known in the world by his communication status to the other cultures and regions.
Influence at work on language
The today’s English language is the development of many centuries ago English. The politics and sociology have darkly effected the English and the people in their life. The great change of religion in 597 in Britain brought the change in the language and connected English to the other cultures. This change resulted in the mixture of two different people and their languages.
In 1066 the English was so much changed and gained the supremacy over all languages. The English language reflected in the nation development of the English people.
Growth and Decay
English is also the subject to the constant growth and decay of the people like all other  languages but we can not language as the matter of life all the languages change  but the language which do not change we call the dead language like classical language. The regular change in the language is seen through vocabulary. Some words finishes some new words creates and some change the meaning. The pronunciation also change like “Stan has become stone”, “cu has become cow”. It is also a spelling. This is the gradual phonetic modification or grammatical change. The changing of forms of the verb “analogy” also effects the language.
The importance of a language
The language is live till when its users are present. When the users of the language are important the language is also important like English, French, German and nowadays Chinese.For this reason the language is studied widely outside its basic region.Sometimes the language gain so much importance that it stays importance along time after loosing its greatness.
The importance of English language
The  English language is naturally very great more then 340 million people speaks it in the northern and western countries.It is the mostly speaking of the some important countries.But the importance of the language is not only the highest number of its native speakers it also depends on the importance of people who speak it.The importance of language is automatically fixed in the minds of people around the world.The importance of language is related to the importance the people and the importance of people is related with their contribution to the progress of the world.

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The Reestablishment of the English Language

Posted on 30 June 2011 by Aajiz

I. Changing Conditions after 1200
The linguistic situation described in the previous chapter did not continue because the conditions under which it arose changed. Shortly after 1200 England lost an important part of its possessions in Europe. The English nobility gradually relinquished their estates in the continent. Rivalry developed between England and France, accompanied by an antiforeign movement in England and reaching its culmination in the Hundred Years’ War. Social and economic changes affecting the English-speaking part of the population were taking place. In the fourteenth century English won its way back into use all over England, and in the fifteenth century French completely disappeared from the British Isles. We are going to examine the changing conditions and the steps by which this situation came about, in subsections A-D below.
A. The Loss of Normandy
Normandy was the first link in the chain binding England to France. This link was broken in 1204 when King John lost Normandy, after the French court confiscated his territory according to feudal law. Philip, the French king, proceeded at once to carry out the decision of the court and invaded Normandy and put the greater part of it in his control, and Normandy was thus lost to the English crown.

The loss of Normandy was advantageous to both the English language and England. This is because the King and nobles looked upon England as their first concern. England then had its own political and economic ends and was on its way to becoming a nation once more.

B. Separation of the French and English Nobility
After the Norman Conquest a large number of people held lands in both England and France, and a kind of interlocking aristocracy existed. It is true that some steps toward a separation of interests had been taken from time to time, as when William the Conqueror left Normandy to his eldest son Robert and England to William Rufus, and as when Henry I confiscated the estates of unruly Norman barons. But in 1204 the process of separation was greatly accelerated when the king of France confiscated the lands of several great barons, and of all knights who lived in England. For the most part the families that had estates in both countries were forced to give up one or the other.

After 1250 there was no reason for the English nobility to consider itself anything but English. This was the most valid reason for ceasing to use English.

C. French Reinforcements
At the same time when the Norman nobility in England was losing its European connections and was led to identify itself wholly with England, the country underwent a new invasion of foreigners, mostly from the south of France. The invasion began in the reign of King John, whose wife was French. Henry III, John’s son, was wholly French in his tastes and connections. He was French on his mother’s side and was related through his wife to the French king, St. Louis. As a result of Henry’s French connections three great streams of foreigners poured into England during his long reign (1216-1272). The first occurred in 1233 when Henry III gave foreigners the charge of all the counties and baronies. In 1236 Henry’s marriage to French lady brought a second influx of foreigners into England. The third inundation occurred ten years later when Henry’s mother, upon the death of his father King John, married a Frenchman and bore him five sons. Henry enriched his half-brothers and married their daughters to English nobles. Marriages with the strangers were encouraged by both the king and the queen at that time. For example Henry’s brother, Richard, got married to the queen’s sister.

The question may now arise as to the impact of such foreign inundations upon England and the English language. An answer is attempted in the following subsection.

D. The Reaction against Foreigners and the Growth of National Feeling
An answer to the question may lie in the fact that the inpouring of foreigners was not completely unfavorable to the English language. This is because a reaction was bound to follow. Even during the reign of John there were calls for a policy of “England for the English”. And in the reign of Henry III the antagonism arose immediately after the first stream of foreigners came to England. The king dismissed the foreigners from the important offices they held, but they were soon back. Opposition to foreigners became the principal ground for national feeling. Between the years 1258 and 1265 the foreigners were driven twice from England. When Edward (1272-1307) came to the throne England entered upon a period of consciousness of its unity. The government officials were for the most part English, and the king warned against the purpose of the king of France to “wipe out the English tongue”.

The effect of the foreign incursions in the thirteenth century was to delay the natural spread of the use of English by the upper class that had begun earlier. It also stimulated the consciousness of the difference between those who participated in English affairs as to consider themselves Englishmen, and those who flocked to England to enjoy Henry’s favors. On of the frequent criticisms against the newcomers was that they did not know English. This meant that there was a general felling that some knowledge of English was regarded a proper mark of an Englishman.

E. The Cultural Ascendancy of French in Europe
In addition to the stimulus given to the use of French in England by incoming upper class foreigners, the language enjoyed a wide popularity all over Europe in the thirteenth century. At this time France represented chivalrous society, and the French language was cultivated at European courts. This status continued until the eighteenth century. In Germany all the great lords had French teachers for their children. The Italian Brunetto Latini, the master of Dante, wrote his great encyclopedia, Li Tresor (about 1265) in French because “that speech is the most delectable and the most common to all people”. At about the same time another Italian translated an important book from Latin into French “because the French language is current throughout the world and is the most delightful to read and to hear”. The prestige of French civilization constituted a strong reason for the continued use of French among upper class circles in England.
II. The Status of English and French in the Thirteenth Century
The thirteenth century witnessed a shifting emphasis upon English and French in England. The upper classes continued to speak French, not as a mother tongue inherited from Norman ancestors, but rather as a language supported by social custom and by business and administrative convention. At the same time English made steady progress and by the middle of the century it became generally used by the upper classes. By the end of the century some children of the nobility spoke English as their mother tongue and had to be taught French through manuals provided with English glosses.

Even at the end of the thirteenth century French was used in Parliament, in the law courts, and in public interaction. French was read by the educated, including those who could not read Latin, but that ability was on the decline, and the knowledge of French was sometimes imperfect.

The spread of English among the upper classes became general, especially in the latter part of the thirteenth century. King Henry III probably knew English; his brother, Richard, earl of Cornwall certainly did; and Henry’s son, Edward I spoke English readily, probably even habitually. English children were taught French by means of manuals with an interlinear English gloss. This was the practice by the middle of the thirteenth century, and in 1300 the mother tongue of the children of the nobility was, in many cases, English. At this time the proper language for Englishmen to know and use became English. This attitude became more noticeable later, and was sometimes accompanied by protest against the use of French, to sum up, in the latter part of the thirteenth century English was widely known among people of all classes, though not necessarily by everyone.

To have a complete picture of the status of English and French in England during the thirteenth century we have to deal with some of the factors that tended to be favorable or otherwise for each of the two languages. These factors are dealt with in subsections A and B below, with their divisions.

A. Factors Affecting the Status of French
There were three factors that had their effect upon the status of French in England during the thirteenth century. These were the attempts to slow the decline of French, the provincial character of the French language spoken in England, and the Hundred Years’ War. Following is a brief discussion of these three factors.
1. Attempts to Slow the Decline of French
In the last decades of the thirteenth century and in the course of the fourteenth the French language was losing its hold on England. Evidence for this fact is seen in the measures adopted to keep it in use, especially when the tendency to speak English became stronger in the two most conservative institutions, namely the church and the universities. A fourteenth-century statute of Oxford University required the students to construe and translate in both English and French “lest the French language be entirely disused”. The foundation statute of Queen’s College (1340) required that the conversation of the students be in Latin or in French. A Cambridge college expected the students to speak English rarely, after Latin and French. Similar regulations were also found necessary in the church.

A further effort to keep the French language from going out of use was made by parliament in 1332, when it called for teaching children the French language. Such efforts indicate that the use of French in England was artificial by the fourteenth century. Evidence for this fact can be found in the appearance as early as 1250 of many manuals for learning French, in which the language was treated frankly as a foreign language.

2. The Provincial Character of French in England
One factor against the continued use of French in England was the fact that Anglo-French was not “good” French. The French introduced into England was predominantly Norman, but under the influence of English linguistic tendencies it gradually developed into something different from any of the dialects spoken in France. Before long the French of England drew a smile from European speakers, and became the subject of humorous treatment in literature. Children were sometimes sent to France to have the “barbarity” taken off their speech. But the situation did not mend, and the provincial character of French in England contributed to its decline there.
3. The Hundred Years’ War
In the centuries following the Norman Conquest the connection of England with the continent was broken. This was followed by a conflict of interests and an increasing feeling of animosity that reached its highest point in a long period of hostility between England and France (1337-1453). A major cause was the interference of France in England’s attempts to control Scotland. King Edward III finally put forth a claim to the French throne and invaded England. Although this long war turned people’s attention to the continent once more, and the expeditions might have tended to keep the French language in use, it had no such effect, but rather led to an opposite consequence. This is probably because the intervals between the periods of actual fighting were too long and the obstacles to trade and other activities were too discouraging. The feeling that remained in the minds of most English people was one of animosity. During this period it was impossible for the English people to forget that French was the language of an enemy country. Thus the Hundred Years’ War was one of the causes that contributed to the disuse of French.
B. Factors Affecting the Status of English
An important factor in helping English recover its former prestige was the rapid improvement in the conditions of the laboring classes and the rise of a considerable middle class during the latter part of the Middle English period. These changes were greatly accelerated when in 1348 there appeared in England a quite contagious and fatal disease that spread rapidly all over the country, reaching its height in the following year, and continuing into the early months of 1350. the mortality was incredibly high, approximating 30 percent. This high mortality rate is quite sufficient to justify the mane “The Black Death”.

As in most epidemics the rich suffered less than the poor, in the sense that the mortality was greatest among the latter. The result was a serious shortage of labor, and an immediate rise in wages. The effect of the Black Death thus increased the economic importance of the laboring class, and as a result the importance of the English language which they spoke.

At this time there arose another important group, namely the craftsmen and the merchant class, who stood halfway between the rural peasants and the hereditary aristocrats. Such social and economic changes benefited particularly the English-speaking part of the population, and contributed to the final triumph of English in the fourteenth century. This will be our concern in the next section.

III. The Status of English and French in the Fourteenth Century
As we have done in Section II above, we are going to examine the position of both English and French in England, but this time in the fourteenth century. Unlike what we did in Section II, the present Section purports to deal with English first and with French second. This is because English in this century regained its status as the language of all the English people.
A. The Status of English
This subsection includes three points, namely the general adoption of English all over England, the employment of English in the law courts, and the use of the English language in the schools. Following is a discussion of each of these points:
1. The General Adoption of English
At the beginning of the fourteenth century everyone in England knew English. Until a generation or two before that time so much of the polite literature of England had been in French. When writers used English they felt called upon to justify their decision. They frequently did this in a prologue, and incidentally made interesting observations on the linguistic situation. One prologue to a work written in 1300 tells us that both the learned and unlearned understood English at that time. In another prologue written in 1325 the writer acknowledges that some people who lived at court know French, but he specifically states that old and young, learned and unlearned, all understand the English tongue. In a third introduction written not later than 1325, and probably earlier, the author makes the expected statement that everybody knows English, and additionally asserts that at a time when gentlemen still “used” French he had seen many nobles who could not speak it.

At this time England had a king, Richard II, who spoke English fluently. Edward III also knew English. Outside the royal family, among the governing class English was the language best understood. And in 1362 the Parliament was opened with a speech in English for the first time. In the last year of the century the order deposing Richard II was read in English, and Henry IV’s speeches claiming the throne and later accepting it were delivered in English. Such instances show that in the fourteenth century English was again the principal tongue of all England.

2. English in the Law Courts
Soon after the Norman Conquest, French was the language of all legal proceedings. But in 1356 proceedings in the courts of London and Middlesex were ordered to be in English. And in 1362 the Statute of Pleading was enacted in the Parliament, and was to go into effect in the following year. According to this statute all lawsuits were to be conducted in English, because “French is much unknown in the said realm,” i.e. in England. Although the statute was not fully observed at once, it constituted the official recognition of English in the law courts.
3. English in the Schools
Shortly after the Conquest, French replaced English as the medium of instruction in the schools. In the twelfth century there were complaints that former education was in English, but was now in French, because “other people now teach our folk”. Until the fourteenth century the use of French in the schools was quite general. Some writers of the period attributed the corruption of the English language partly to this fact. However, after the Back Death, two Oxford schoolmasters were responsible for a great innovation in English education, namely John Cornwall and Pencrich. These two schoolmasters introduced English as the vehicle of instruction in their schools, probably because of a scarcity of competent teachers. Anyhow, after the middle of the fourteenth century English began to be used in the schools, and by 1385 the practice became general.
B. The Status of French
Although everyone understood English, this does not mean that French had entirely gone out of use, it was still sometimes used at the court although English had replaced it. French was chiefly the language of two groups, the educated class and the French. The learned included the legal profession and the church. French was the language of lawyers and the law courts until 1362. Churchmen could still speak French at that time. But churchmen of the younger generation were losing their command of the language.

French was also generally known to government officials. It was the language of parliament, local administration, town councils, and the guilds, with some instances of the intrusion of English. French was common in letters and local records, and was often written by people who did not habitually speak it, and thus was the kind of French of people who were obviously thinking in English.

People who could speak French in the fourteenth century were bilingual. Following is a brief discussion of the increasing ignorance of French in the fifteenth century, followed by the rise of the language as a language of culture and fashion.

1. Increasing Ignorance of French in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries
In A. l. above we have mentioned that there were many nobles who could not speak French in the beginning of the fourteenth century. This condition became more prevalent as time went on. By the fifteenth century the ability to speak French fluently was looked upon as an accomplishment, and the ability to write if became less general among people of position. Ignorance of French was quite common among the governing class in England from the beginning of the fifteenth century.
2. The Rise of French as a Language of Culture and Fashion
When French went out of use as a spoken language in England its sphere became more restricted and the reasons for cultivating it changed. French started to be learned to enable Englishmen to communicate with their neighbors in France, not to communicate among themselves as before. Cultivation of French continued in the fifteenth century and later because of the feeling that it was the language of culture and fashion. This feeling, which was later strengthened in the eighteenth century, is still present in the minds of many people today.
IV. The Use of English in Writing
The last step in the gradual ascent of the English language was its employment in writing. This is because in this respect it had to compete with both Latin and French. French was the first language in England to break the monopoly of Latin in writing. It was only in the fifteenth century that English succeeded in replacing both. About 1350 French was at its height as the language of private and semi-official correspondence. The earliest letters written in English appeared in the latter part of the fourteenth century, although there were few before 1400. eventually, after 1450 English letters were used everywhere.

The situation was rather similar with wills. The earliest known English will after the Conquest dates from 1383, but wills written in English were rare before 1400. in 1397 the earl of Kent made his will in English, and in 1438 the countess of Stanford did likewise. The wills of Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI were all written in the English language.

In the fifteenth century English was adopted for the records of towns and guilds, as well as in some branches of the central government. About 1430 some towns translated their ordinances and books of customs into English. English became generally used in their transactions after 1450. It was likewise with the guilds, in some of which English was used along with French in their ordinances. This was the case in a London guild as early as 1345, and later at York in 1400.

The records of Parliament are a similar case. The petitions of the Commons, on which statutes were based if they were approved, were usually in French until 1423. These petitions were enrolled in French even when they had been originally presented in English. As for the statutes themselves, they were generally in Latin until about 1300, then in French until the reign of Henry VII. It was in 1485 that they began to appear in English side by side with French, until French entirely disappeared in 1489.

The reign of Henry V (1413-1422) marked the turning point in the use of English in writing. The king set an example in using English in his correspondence, and exerted certain efforts to promote its use in writing. Apparently his victories over the French gave the English a pride in things that were English. The end of the reign of King Henry V and the beginning of the next mark the period at which English began to be generally adopted in writing. The year 1425 represents the approximate date of the general employment of the English language in writing.

V. Middle English Literature
The literature written in England during the Middle English period reflects the changing conditions of the English language. When French was the language best understood by the upper classes, the books they read were in French. The literature in English that has come down to us from 1150 to 1250 was almost exclusively religious or admonitory in nature, e.g. interpretations of Gospel passages, and stories of saints’ lives. However, there were some exceptions of works that did not deal with religions subjects, e.g. the astonishing verse debate between The Owl and the Nightingale, about the year 1195. The hundred years between 1150 and 1250 were justly called the Period of Religious Record. The absence of works in English appealing to courtly tastes marks the English language at this time as the language of the middle and lower classes.

In addition to written literature, there was also a body of popular literature that circulated orally among the people. But such literature left only slight traces in this early period.

The separation of the English nobility from France around the year 1250, and the spread of English among the upper class is reflected in the next hundred years of English literature. Polite literature that had until that time appeared only in French now appeared in English. The most popular type of this literature was the romance. Only one English romance exists from an earlier date than 1250. but from this time on translations and adaptations from French began to appear, and their number increased largely during the fourteenth century. Although the religions literature characterizing the previous period continued, there appeared now other types. Thus the hundred years between 1250 and 1350 is labeled the Period of Religious and Secular literature in English literature. This period indicates clearly the wider spread of the English language.

The general employment of English by all cases, which took place by the latter half of the fourteenth century, resulted in a body of literature that represented the high point in English literature during the Middle Ages. The period from 1350 to 1400 is called the Period of Great Individual Writers. The chief name among these writers was Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400), who is considered the greatest English poet before Shakespeare. In addition to delightful minor poems, Chaucer composed a long narrative poem called Troilus and Criseyde, but his most famous work is the Canterbury Tales, which constitutes in its variety of tales an anthology of medieval literature. To this period belong William Langland, John Wycliffe, and other prose writers and poets, who made the latter part of the fourteenth century an outstanding period in Middle English literature.

The fifteenth century is sometimes called the Imitative Period because so much of the poetry written at that time was imitating that of Chaucer. The same century is sometimes also referred to as the Transition Period, because it covers a large part of the time between the age of Chaucer and that of Shakespeare. To this period belong the writers Lydgate, Hoccleve, Skelton, and Hawes. At the end of the century English literature had the prose of Malory and Caxton. Scottish imitators of Chaucer, e.g. Henryson, Dunbar, Gawin Douglas, and Lindsay, produced significant work. These authors carried on the tradition of English as a literary medium into the Renaissance. Thus, English literature during the Middle English period sheds interesting light on the status of the English language

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