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What is Plagiarism?

Posted on 01 June 2013 by Zammad Aslam

What is Plagiarism?

Etymology of the word “plagiarism”

In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius (literally kidnapper), to denote someone stealing someone else’s work, was pioneered by Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had “kidnapped his verses.” This use of the word was introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist Ben Jonson, to describe as a plagiary someone guilty of literary theft.

The derived form plagiarism was introduced into English around 1620.

DEFINITION

According to the Merriam-Webster On-Line Dictionary, to “plagiarize” means

1. To steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own

2. To use (another’s production) without crediting the source

3. To commit literary theft: to present as new and original, an idea or product, derived from an existing source.

 

Stanford sees plagiarism as “use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person’s original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form”

The practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own is plagiarism.

(http://www.mdc.edu)

So what is plagiarism?

 

1. Plagiarism can occur on any academic assignment, not just papers.

2. Plagiarism is not limited to copying other peoples’ work, but includes failing to cite your sources properly or revising others’ work to make it sound like your own.

3. If you don’t use quotation marks correctly, you are plagiarizing! If you don’t use footnotes correctly, you are plagiarizing! If you copy someone else’s work and try to mask it by changing words or sentences around, you are plagiarizing!

But can words and ideas really be stolen?

According to U.S. law, the answer is yes.  In the United States and  many other countries, the expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions.  Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in some media (such as a book or a computer file).

All of the following are considered plagiarism

1. Turning in someone else’s work as your own
2. Copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
3. Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
4. Giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
5. Changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit
6. Copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not.

TYPES OF PLAGIARISM

1. CLONE

Submitting another’s work, word-for-word, as one’s own

2. CTRL-C

Contains significant portions of text from a single source without alterations

3. FIND – REPLACE

Changing key words and phrases but retaining the essential content of the source

4. REMIX

Paraphrases from multiple sources, made to fit together

5. RECYCLE

Borrows generously from the writer’s previous work without citation

6. HYBRID

Combines perfectly cited sources with copied passages without citation

7. MASHUP

Mixes copied material from multiple sources

8. 404 ERROR

Includes citations to non-existent or inaccurate information about sources

9. AGGREGATOR

Includes proper citation to sources but the paper contains almost no original work

10. RE-TWEET

Includes proper citation, but relies too closely on the text’s original wording and/or structure

 

Self-plagiarism

Reading the following line, can you guess the meaning of the term self-plagiarism.

“Self-plagiarism involves dishonesty but not intellectual theft.“ (David B. Resnik)

Self-plagiarism (also known as “recycling fraud”) is the reuse of significant, identical, or nearly identical portions of one’s own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or without citing the original work. It is common for university researchers to rephrase and republish their own work, tailoring it for different academic journals and newspaper articles, to disseminate their work to the widest possible interested public. One of the functions of the process of peer review in academic writing is to prevent this type of “recycling”.

CRITICISM ON SELF-PLAGIARISM

The concept of “self-plagiarism” has been challenged as self-contradictory. Stephanie J. Bird argues that self-plagiarism is a misnomer, since by definition plagiarism concerns the use of others’ material. Bird identifies that in an educational context, “self-plagiarism” refers to the case of a student who resubmits “the same essay for credit in two different courses.”

 

HEC’s Plagiarism Eradication System

HEC’s goal is to combat plagiarism effectively in an academic environment in all institutions while ensuring that the students and academicians know that stealing someone’s intellectual property is unethical and can lead to serious consequences. For this, IT division has sought for technological solution and acquired an online software tool to assist in identifying the plagiarized material from documents. The software tool, iThenticate and Turnitin are amongst the leading software used globally for such purposes. The facility is provided to all higher education institutions across the country and is in use since 2007. This web based service is available at http://www.turnitin.com and 1000 licenses for each of the universities/ institutes have been acquired and handed over to teaching faculty, post graduate students and researchers in order to address the issue at the grass root level. A total of one hundred and twenty seven (127) HEIs have been provided with this facility. At present there are 7170 instructors registered with this acquired services, whereas the number of students are more than 15,000. During past five (05) years, nearly 150,000 articles and/ or documents have been submitted to generate the Originality Report.

How do these software help?

1. Educators can check students’ work for improper citation.
2. Helps instructors in saving time spent on assessing written work and marking it accordingly.

How TO benefit from hec plagiarism prevention service?

In order to get benefit from HEC Plagiarism Prevention Service, online service is available at:

http://www.turnitin.com

 

What IS CITATION?

A “citation” is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:

1. Information about the author

2. The title of the work
3. The name and location of the company that published your copy of the source
4. The date your copy was published
5. The page numbers of the material you are borrowing

 

WHEN DO I NEED TO CITE?

Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situations almost always require citation:

1. Whenever you use quotes

2. Whenever you paraphrase
3. Whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed
4. Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another
5. Whenever someone else’s work has been critical in developing your own ideas.

 Sanctions for student plagiarism

In the academic world, plagiarism by students is usually considered a very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment, the entire course, or even being expelled from the institution. Generally, the punishment increases as a person enters higher institutions of learning. For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases in which a student commits severe plagiarism (e.g., submitting a copied piece of writing as original work), suspension or expulsion is likely.

How to avoid plagiarism?

ATTRIBUTION

The acknowledgement that something came from another source. The following sentence properly attributes an idea to its original author:

Jack Bauer, in his article “Twenty-Four Reasons not to Plagiarize,” maintains that cases of plagiarists being expelled by academic institutions have risen dramatically in recent years due to an increasing awareness on the part of educators.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A list of sources used in preparing a work.

CITATION

A short, formal indication of the source of information or quoted material.

ENDNOTES

Notes at the end of a paper acknowledging sources and providing additional references or information.

FOOTNOTES

Notes at the bottom of a paper acknowledging sources or providing additional references or information.

QUOTATION

Quote Your Sources Correctly!

 

Some other ways to avoid plagiarism are:

1. Paraphrase Your Sources!

2. Proofread!

3. Ask a Librarian or Your Professor!

4. Use the Library’s Online Resources and Tutorials!

5. Commit Yourself to Not Plagiarizing!

 

CONCLUSION

1. The presentation of the work of another person as one’s own or without proper acknowledgement is said to be PLAGIARISM.
2. Plagiarism is unethical and can lead to serious consequences.
3. People who are found guilty of this offence are punished duly.
4. Pakistan combats plagiarism with the help of HEC.
5. The best way to stop Plagiarism is to “Commit yourself to NOT Plagiarizing!”

By: Emanuel Anthony

Source:

WRITING, EDITING, CITATION

 

Plagiarism (EP)

Plagiarism (EP) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

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James Joyce and the Mythology of Modernism

Posted on 05 September 2012 by Zammad Aslam

What is Myth?

A conventional or Renowned tale, usually about some being or idol or even with or without a determinable foundation fact or a natural description, especially one that is worried with deities or demigods and describes some practice, ceremony or trend of characteristics.

The conventional meaning of belief from tradition research discovers best delineation in Bill Bascom’s article “The Types of Folklore: Writing Narratives” where misconceptions are described as stories considered as true, usually holy, set in a time long ago or other planets or parts of the world, and with extra-human, inhuman, or brave figures. Such misconceptions, often described as “cosmogonic,” or “origin” misconceptions, use to offer or cosmology, based on “cosmic” from the Ancient kosmos significance way. Cosmology’s issue with transaction of the galaxy discovers tale, representational concept in misconceptions, which thus often help find important principles or factors of a culture’s worldview. For many people, misconceptions stay value-laden discussion that describes much about personal instinct.

There are a variety of common conceptual frameworks engaged in descriptions of belief, such as these:

1. Myths are Cosmogonic Stories, linked with the Groundwork or Source of the Galaxy (and key people within that universe), though often particularly with regards to a particular lifestyle or area. Given the relationship to roots, the establishing is generally primordial (the starting of time) and figures are proto-human or deific. Misconceptions also often have cosmogonic overtones even when not completely cosmogonic, such as interacting with roots of essential components of the lifestyle (food, remedies, events, etc.).

2. Myths are Stories of a Holy Characteristics, often linked with some Practice. Misconceptions are often fundamental or key narratives associated with belief systems. These narratives are considered to be real from within the associated trust program (though sometimes that fact is recognized to be metaphoric rather than literal). Within any given lifestyle there may be sacred and luxurious myths coexisting.
3. Myths are Stories informative or Indicative of Public Purchase or Principles within a Culture (e.g. functionalism).

4. Myths are Stories Associate of a Particular Epistemology or Way of Knowing Characteristics and Planning Believed. For example, structuralism acknowledges joined many of opposites (or dualities — like mild and dark) as main to myths.

5. Mythic Stories often Include Brave Characters (possibly proto-humans, extremely people, or gods) who mediate natural, unpleasant duality, reunite us to our facts, or find the styles for lifestyle as we know it.
6. Myths are Stories that are “Counter-Factual in presenting stars and activities that confound the conferences of schedule experience”

Greek Mythology:

Historical greek belief is the body of misconceptions and tales from the standard Greeks, about their Gods and characters, the characteristics around the globe and the roots and importance of their own lifestyle and practice methods. They were an aspect of belief in ancient Portugal and are aspect of belief in contemporary Greece and all over the globe as Hellenism contemporary college students refer to, and study, the misconceptions in attempt to throw light on the spiritual and governmental organizations of ancient Portugal, its society and to gain understanding of the characteristics of belief making itself.

Greek belief is embodied, clearly, in a large collection of stories and unquestioningly in Historical greek representational artistry ,such as vase-paintings ,and votive gift .Greek belief efforts to explain the roots around the globe, and details the lives and journeys of a lot of gods , actresses , heroes, heroin and fictional animals . these records initially were published in an oral graceful custom, today the Historical greek misconceptions are known mainly from Historical greek literary performs.

The most ancient known Historical greek basically resources, Homer’s legendary poems Iliad and journey, focus on event surrounding the Computer virus War. two poems by homer near contemporary Hesiod ,the Theogony and the performs and days, contain records on the genesis of the word, the sequence of heavenly rules, the sequence of each age, the source if each problem , and the source of sacrificial methods . belief also are maintained in the Homeric hymns ,in fragment of legendary poetry of the legendary pattern, in lines poems ,in the performs of the tragedians of the fifth millennium B.C , in documents of college students and romantics of the Hellenistic age and in text from the time of roman kingdom by writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias .
Archaeological conclusions offer a principal resources of detail about Historical greek belief ,with gods and characters features plainly in the design of many relics. Geometrical design on poems of the eight millennium B.C represents seems from the Computer virus pattern as well as the adventured of Heracles . in the following ancient , traditional, and Hellenistic periods , Homeric and various other legendary seems appears, adding to and current basically evidence.

Greek belief has applied an comprehensive influence on the lifestyle, the artistry , and the literary performs of european society and stay s aspect of european history and language. Poet and artists from the past to the present have produced motivation from Historical greek belief and have discovered contemporary importance and importance in the legendary themes.

Daedalus Myth:

The belief of Daedalus and Icarus is one of the most known and fascinating Ancient Myth’s, as it contain both traditional and Fictional details. While in Ancient Daedalus designed the strategy for the Minoan building of Knossos one of the most essential traditional websites in The isle and Portugal these days. It was a spectacular structural style and developing of 1300 areas, designed with awesome frescoes and relics stored until these days.
King Minos and Daedalus had excellent knowing at first but there connection began difficult at some cause there are several changes describing this rapid change although the most typical one is that Daedalus was the one who advised queen Ariadne to offer Theseus the line that assisted in come out from the in popular Network after eliminating the Minotaur.
The Network was a labyrinth develop be Daedalus Master Minos desired a developing proper to imprison the Fictional creäture Minotor and according to the Myth he use to imprison his opponents in the Network creating sure that they would be murdered by the creäture. Minos was enraged when discovered out about the disloyalty and caught Daedalus and his son Icarus in the Network.
Icarus was a youthful son of Daedalus. Daedalus was way too sensible and creative, thus he began considering how he and Icarus would evade the Network knowing that his structural development was too complex, he realized out that they could not come out on base. He also realized that the shoreline of create were completely covered, thus, they would not be able to evade by sea either. The only way remaining was the air.
Daedalus handle to create Huge feathers, using offices of osier and linked there with spend. He trained Icarus how to fly, but informed him to keep away from the sun because the warm would create the wax liquefy, ruining the wings.
Daedalus and Icarus handled the evade the Network and went to the sky. The journey of Daedalus and Icarus was once that man handled to journey the Regulations of characteristics and defeat severity. Although Icarus was cautioned, he was too youthful and passionate about traveling. He got excited by the excitement of traveling and taken away by the awesome sensation of independence and began traveling excellent to praise the sun, snorkeling low to the sea and then up excellent again.
His dad Daedalus was trying in rainfall to create youthful Icarus to comprehend his actions was risky and Icarus soon saw his wings reducing.
Icarus sensed into the sea and perished. The Icarians Sea, where he dropped, was known as after him and there is also a close by little Island known as Icaria.

Implications Of Myths on Different Works:

It has been stated that the Historical greek Misconceptions are at the beginning of european society, that homer is the writer of the first work of Literary performs that european society may depend as its own, that huge areas of european lifestyle and art – songs, artwork and Literary performs – discovered their resource of motivation in the experiences of belief, and that the Historical greek Misconceptions are worried with essential and imperishable life problems i.e. Beowalf etc. With the rediscovery of traditional antiquity in rebirth ,the poems of Ovid became a significant impact on the creativity of romantics and performers and stayed an essential impact on the diffusion and knowing of greek belief through following hundreds of decades. From the beginning decades of rebirth, performers represented topics from greek belief together with more traditional Religious styles.among the best known topics of German performers are ,the brings of Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. Through the method of latina and the performs of Ovid, greek belief affected ancient and rebirth romantics such as Petrarch, Boccaccio and Dante in Tuscany.
In north European countries, greek belief never took the same keep of the visible artistry ,but its impact was very plain on literature. Both Latin and greek traditional text messages were converted, so that experiences of belief became available . in The united kingdom, Chaucer, the Elizabethans and Bob Milton were among those affected by greek myths ;nearly all the significant British romantics from Shakespeare to Bob Links converted for motivation to greek belief. Jean Racine in Portugal and Goethe in Malaysia improved Historical greek dilemma. Racine modified the standard myths such as those of Phaedra, Andromache, Oedipus and Iphigenia to new goal.
The 1700s saw the philosophical trend of the Enlightenment spread throughout European countries and associated with certain response against Historical greek belief ; there was a propensity to need on the medical and philosophical success of Portugal and The capital. The myths ,however, ongoing to offer an essential resource of raw content for dramatists, such as those who had written the libretti for Handel’s operas Admeto and Semele and Mozart’s Idomeneo. By the end of the millennium, romanticism started an increase of passion for all things Historical greek , such as greek belief. In England, it was an excellent interval for new translations of Historical greek disasters and Homer, and these in convert motivated modern romantics, such as Keats , Byron and Shelley. The Hellenism of queen’s Victoria poet laureate, Alfred master Tennyson, was such that even his images of the quintessentially British judge of master writer are suffused with addresses of the Homeric epics. The visible artistry kept speed, triggered by the by of the Parthenon glass beads in 1816;; many of the “Greek” performs of art of master Leighton and Lawrence Alma-Tadema were seriously approved as aspect of the indication of the indication of the Hellenic perfect.
American writers of the 1800s , such as Johnson Bulfinch and Nathaniel Hawthorne, considered that belief should offer satisfaction , and organised that the research of the traditional myths was essential to the knowing of British and United states literature. In more the past few decades, traditional styles have been reinterpreted by such significant dramatists as gene Anouilh, Jean Cocteau and Jean Giraudoux in France, Eugene O’Neil in The united states and T.S.Eliot in The united kingdom and by excellent writers such as the Irish James Joyce.

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