Tag Archive | "Aristotle"

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Thought Provoking Proverbs

Posted on 29 July 2012 by Muskan

 

                                                                                            A little bit effort of today

                                                                                   Makes one the Aristotle of tomorrow

                                                                                                                                                                  (Muskan Fatima)

 

 

                                                                                    “Great people never bow themselves in

                                                                                             front of difficulties

                                                                                                                                                                       ( Muskan Fatima)

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Beauty and Nature influenced by Keats

Posted on 15 December 2011 by Aajiz

Beauty and Comparison

From the look of a new created infant baby to the purity of experience of cat overall is beauty… Dynamics cover in woman’s thought or the blossoming bloom overall is Keats beauty… enjoying kid in dream and the wonderful flowers overall is splendor… Sky to the Eco-friendly areas, plants to the touching me not place overall is splendor…Heavens to soil overall is beauty… Stars to galaxies; celestial satellite to lamination all in all is beauty… Love into perspective to measures, thoughts from vocabulary to salience overall is splendor… Creations into everyday living, wildlife on the market overall is beauty…Time of understanding, Intellectual of audio understanding all in all is beauty…lamb to bunny, seafood to chicken, pet to people all in all is beauty…

Beauty and Women

Beauty normally appears to be attractive and the best to recommend it is the womanish character that could appeal the look and alert a concept of wonder of creation…But the audio woman splendor is best in cover, in Veil not the way the epoch of press is presenting… Beauty be associated with some expand to women when it comes to conversation in people community, but what if it would be associated with every individual moment in some time to impetus and each little to larger elements of widespread spectrum…What if it could be explain in more broader skyline to include the passion, creativity be aspect of splendor…

Beauty and Emotions

Feeling of natural beauty is one of the essential cosmetic feelings, which draw not only the people obvious simple fact but also the concealed emotions; natural beauty is none other than a type of listlessness for people without this people community is like garden of thorns. The obvious natural beauty though attractive but has both on the sides effect, one side is that which is essential because beauty’s positive element that obvious natural beauty sense the great thing about perspective and relax the people a sense of inspiration to discover the galaxy full of secret and concealed gifts. Second part, natural beauty is strange and it is inaccurate, it is alluringly wonderful and such appeal sometimes damages the worth of the significance that could be drop in task, could be drop in entice to test, and could be puppet for statement. The black element of natural beauty is surprisingly risky as materials created until yet and the element that protects the light of natural beauty based on inspiration that could be absolutely in higher built stated as Lights of Nature, the methods and great thing about Dynamics.

Many of the prominent, known and legendary authors worldwide create about the natural beauty in their own style with a sense of profoundness and with satisfaction of their experienced energy and power. Some identified their country’s great thing about ability, some identified their area natural beauty and some choose the Dynamics and Splendor to discover. Beauty is the most wonderful simple fact and its existence is the experience and proof of everyday living. Beauty can be a concept and perception and can be an action of exercise.

Splendor can be search through and can be discovered on in the biggest elements of lifestyle but even in the little secrets and techniques that could a kid hold in his mind, that could be the silliest imagined but in kid perspective important for his growing years.

All the experienced people who have great thing about imagined, who have the great thing about edition, who know the worth of the cleanliness, modesty activities and etiquette that could make them higher in built they show always the mindset side of their lives and their elite perspective.

As all the major elements comes from inside world like drive. Creativity external supply are vital for implementations, for practice and for the exercise of activities so the wonder may be the substance of external supply Dynamics or of the Inner supply Dynamics all would be wonderful if they appeal people feeling of cosmetic, feeling of building, feeling of designs and arts, feeling of existing with mannerism, feeling of religious inspiration. That disclose to people knowledge that beauty is in actually what we naturally are and in embracing the best activities among the other people by offering them with goodness, respect, with commitment and with humankind. Splendor is in the feeling of thinking and in perspective that could show the external supply with creativity and drive to be excellent in all elements of lifestyle.

Beauty is what a people obtain in front of Development by excellent activities, by assisting existing creatures and thoughtful the lifestyle as the precious most gift of Dynamics to enhance the regards of generation with the Designer…

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Oedipus Rex By Aristotle

Posted on 10 December 2011 by Aajiz

Oedipus Rex Introduction

Oedipus Rex is one of the categories of three operates by Sophocles known as Theban operates, since they connect with the destinies of the Theban category of Oedipus and his kids. The other two operates of this team are Antigone and Oedipus at Colonus. However although the three operates are attached by design and topic, they do not type a trilogy in the typical sensation of the expression. In Vocabulary, decryption the engage in is usually known as Oedipus the Entire or Entire Oedipus, but Oedipus Rex, the Latina headline, is the most well known. In Oedipus Rex, Sophocles simply leaves a major issue with story outside the plan. His promotions immediately with only the last day of Oedipus concept over Thebes. We are to believe that Oedipus has been judgment fortunately over Thebes for about many decades. His personal lifestyle also has been a very pleased one. He has four kids by his spouse, Jocasta. Actually, this indicates that even a further fun is in store for him, for after the loss of life of Polybus he is to be profitable him to the throne of Corinth also. However, all this fun is illusory. It is unveiled is a second that, far from being the wonderful of men, Oedipus is the most unpleasant of them. Instead of being the wise solver of riddles, which he himself and as well as his topics believe him to be, he is unaware even of his personality and parentage. In prejudice, he has murdered his dad and wed his mom. Knowing himself the Corinthian knight in shining armor, and trying to prevent the luck, which the Oracle has estimated for him, he actually operates into its grip. He becomes a serious example of the prejudice and vulnerability of man in the experience of success, although in one sensation Oedipus in Sophocles engage in, is surprisingly the expert of the luck at every level, and whatever happens the engage in does so at his own project. Oedipus Rex is a marvel; it is filled with normal beauty and complication of design and importance. It is the most exciting Ancient loss which elaborates,’ Man is a pure puppet in the palms of fate’. There are various standpoints for looking at the design of the engage in. It may be considered as a engage in enacting the design of loss of look to luck, uncertainty of disclosing facts, Being unaware the rashness, understanding the simple reality as dreadful and illustriousness of individuals fun. The drawback of individual’s intellect in solving the riddles of success may also considered one of the considerable speeches of the engage in. The engage in also provides out the loss as well as the pride of individuals resolve and will energy. Experts have discovered many designs in the engage in, the most well known such decryption being that of Freud, who has known as a complicated after Oedipus viz. the Oedipus complex. This engage in may also appeared upon as an allegory—that if one tries to prevent a person’s luck, one would only supporting and hastening it. Thus, Oedipus Rex is the best loss because of its good mixing of Personality and Fate.

Aristotle’s distinction of loss and the engage in Entire Oedipus Rex

Aristotle first identifies loss in his poetics around 330 BC, and all pursuing types of dreadful activities have affected by his elements. According to Aristotle, “Tragedy, then, is an fake of a respectable and total measures, having the appropriate magnitude; it has language that has been beautifully increased . . . ; it is offered in incredible, not story type, and does, through the counsel of pitiable and afraid mishaps, the catharsis of such incidents” (chapter 6; Wonderful 11). Sophocles authored “Oedipus the King” for the yearly competition where playwrights ran for awards. It was a considerable social situation, with work estimated. Sophocles you are incredibly excellent, especially considering his era. His composing is amazing with each expression developing the whole. He is filled with helpful findings on lifestyle. Moreover, despite the restrictions of the type, he often controls to create his individuals seem like actual individuals. The headline of our engage in is often given in its Latina decryption “Oedipus Rex”, rather than in its unique Ancient (”Oedipus Tyranneus”), since the Ancient expression for king is the Vocabulary “tyrant” which indicates a monarch who regulations without the approval of the individuals. There is an in-depth philosophic articles at the again of Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex. It seems through this engage in he suggests that man must dilemma himself with his own activities and is still within his designated area in lifestyle. He must not consider to equivalent the gods in any admiration (as Ancient Belief moves around gods, and Oedipus is also a fabricated engage in as well). He seems to carry out control as an excellent advantage. Increased wish even for such a excellent stuff as understanding angers the gods, who then deliver about the person’s damage through his own overweening satisfaction and conceit. To Sophocles every title has its greatest repercussions, which no one can break free. The techniques of gods are strange and no individuals being must try to food into them. Along with major an un-blamable lifestyle, one must display the appropriate admiration for the gods as well as for the various organizations and methods of faith.

Oedipus Rex as Tragic Hero

Oedipus meets operate of a loss, and arouses dilemma and spend in the best stage. However, unfortunately a present day readers, returning to the vintage excitement not entirely for the objective of fun, will not always submit him to the mental outcome. He is appropriate to fear about Ancient fatalism and the proper rights of the problem of Oedipus, and, discovering no reasonable option for these issues, sheds 50 % the enjoyment that the excitement was designed to generate. Oedipus is superhuman, yet the engage in offers universality. Parricide and incest are not typical activities, yet the misconception of fun, and spending of unwitting offences is a widespread dreadful design. Oedipus is a photograph of a man, who is happy by success, only to be upset all the more when that success gives location to catastrophe as reported in engage in by chorus:

‘’All the generations of mortal man add up to nothing!

Show me the man whose happiness was anything more than illusion

Followed by disillusion.

Here is the instance, here is Oedipus, here is the reason

Why I will call no mortal creature happy.”

 

According to Aristotle the dreadful major man must be a personal of respectable beginning and success whose loss success, not from depravity or vice but from hamartia. The last concept has converted as issue of perspective by most critics but powerfully considered as dreadful drawback. Oedipus is clearly advanced type of personal established by Aristotle, and he is in fun of excellent fun and success at the beginning of the story. However, it is challenging to say that his loss befalls him because of some drawback in his character, or some issue of perspective dedicated by him. There is uncertainty that his character has several problems and that he does make some issue of perspective, but the concern is whether these mistakes are the cause of his tragedy? Oedipus is uncertainty hasty, anxious, annoying and enthusiastic. He is also very pleased of his intellect, and considers that he can discover the respond to every issue. At more than one location, he is also accountable of impious thoughts. His procedure to Creon is far from sensible, and he is needlessly tough to Teiresias. Yet, if we take his loss to be the primary activities of incest and parricide, then these problems and mistakes of Oedipus are unnecessary. However, Oedipus claims a serious strategy to the killer of Laius and says that he will prize the procedure even to himself, if he is the accountable personal. It is by his thoughts that Teiresias is angered and prophesies a serious strategy to the killer of his dad and the man of his mom. Moreover, Oedipus success in him further by generating fun of his loss of look and this head Teiresias to anticipate that Oedipus also will become shades and will depart Thebes like a dependent beggar. Although the estimations do not deliver about the activities described in them,, yet they add to Oedipus having issues and humiliations. Or one may say that Oedipus commits the essential blunder of considering himself similar to the gods and of being able to address every issue. In that situation the dreadful drawback in Oedipus would become that of cockiness or hubris. His profession changes from success to dreadful trouble, and he creates the dreadful development that individuals understanding is incredibly restricted and inaccurate.

Hubris or Destiny

‘’You cannot change this. The gods themselves

Cannot fix it. It follows of necessity………..’’

In Sophocles disasters individuals having issues trips the not guilty as much as does the accountable, and he who goes through is, therefore, not instantly accountable. The poet will develop the aspect of suffering; he does note—especially not in his later works—accept it as a procedure or retribution; rather he focuses on the purity of the victim…. Moreover, despite this procedure, the poet still needs recognition of the best man having issues. Therefore, we discover in his operates no examining theodicy, no research into the cause of having issues, but the sentence that having issues is built in individuals instinct. Sophocles simply leaves little uncertainty that whatever there is a clash between the individual’s law and the divine; it is beautiful law, which warrants to be discovered.

‘’Of happiness the crown

And chiefest part

Is wisdom, and to hold

The gods in awe.

This is the law

That seeing the stricken heart

Of pride brought down,

We learn when we are old.’’

 

Chance is the considerable pedaling in the plan of Ancient Fabricated operates. Fate is itself the considerable management of individuals in any situation. Greeks considers that Destiny is preplanned and the composing by the deities and the beautiful law so highly effective that provide, boost and management all the transcendental and cosmological features. As Bill Shakespeare shows in such thoughts, the same spiritual and fabricated beautiful theory:

‘As flies to the wonton boys,

Are we to the gods?

They kill us for their sport.’’

 

This is the most dubious factor and in few thoughts of concept, it could not be simple to take the whole idea and the elements. Many materials has been vindicated and created on this topic, yet there is so many places to be chock-full. Consequently, Oedipus Rex symbolizes FATE as a managing energy as a powerful design, divinity and beautiful energy in biggest built and judgment over the totally freedom. One of the major designs of this engage in is FATE or FREE WILL. So far in Ancient fabricated engage in Fate benefits over the totally freedom. Fate cannot be over create by gods and not even can remove, which gives beginning to the loss and this happens to the suitable dreadful major man Oedipus. Therefore, Oedipus Rex is also acknowledged as loss of luck.

Paradox in the play

Oedipus Rex is certainly, a engage in which identifies contradictions. The presentation situations, imagined and judgment situations. Situations regarding appearance and reality is strongly and powerfully culcated as a design in the engage in. The contradiction takes place when Teiresias affects Oedipus and the discussion in return explains the simple reality from one aspect and prejudice from another. The simple fact beyond shades delivers forth by the prolonged features of Oedipus. Sophocles is professional enough to create comparison of luck and totally freedom by outfits them as individuals and the major design of the engage in. Evaluate contradiction and clash and this has been created through the individuals and their presentation. Oedipus and Jocasta characterize the photograph of concealed contradiction, where as their regards depending on concern. Oedipus and Laius in a roundabout way, So far the paradox is the one of the considerable styles of the engage in which boost it as a loss and create it remarkable over the decades.

Relevance of Teiresias

Although Teiresias is a personality in two of the three Theban operates of Sophocles, he is in fact a determine in Ancient mythology. Teiresias was a Theban who was once improved into a woman for some time for the criminal offenses of eliminating the females of a couple of snakes. There two cultures about how he became shades. According to one of them, Zeus and Hera requested him whether a man or a woman experienced erectile partnership more. Zeus had been requiring that females experienced it more, while Hera of the perspective that men gotten increased fun. Teiresias acknowledged the perspective of Zeus, due to which the envious Hera hit him shades. Zeus rewarded him for this loss by advantage him with a durability and conferring on him the present of prediction. According to another story, he was cornered shades because he occurred to enjoy Athena while she was washing. In Oedipus Rex, his part is more considerable, he is the one who is shades seer, though seemingly shades but giving with incredible sensation of understanding about upcoming and its predictions:

‘’Student of mysteries,

Of all that’s taught and all that no man tells,

Secrets of Heaven and secrets of the earth’’

Creon suggests Oedipus to deliver for Teiresias and ask him to uncover some option for the issues of Thebes. Later the Refrain also together with the same details and Oedipus response that he has already done so. It seems to be, however that Teiresias is not very willing to appear before the king. Teiresias is a outstanding and compared determine in the engage in. The comparison between the external elegance and inward loss of look of Oedipus and the external loss of look and inward look of the prophet is one of the given features of the world and Sophocles does not spend this normal possibility. Oedipus taunts Teiresias with his loss of look, saying that he has ‘eyes for revenue only, loss of look in his create.’ Teiresias’ reply is a amazing consummation of this engage in on look and loss of look. Teiresias retorts, ‘’you have your look, but you do not see in what wicked you are.’’ His messages, thoroughly in the engage in are considerable and disclosing. He is the associate of greatly mind spokesperson in entrance of Oedipus for his Fate and Character’s hamartia. Teiresias is associate of reality and simple fact and the one who eliminates the take care of of illusionary layer of fun and wonder of Oedipus. So far, Teiresias is the one who pinpoints the issue of perspective and his character is the important, highly effective and middle one in the orgasm and the planning of the engage in.

Significance of Jocasta character

The features of Jocasta that comes into engage in are mostly those of a spouse and a king but we are still able to message board some perception of her features as a woman. She seems to be quite in comparison with the hot impetuosity of Oedipus for she is light, average and awesome –headed. This we see best of all when she rebukes Oedipus and Creon for involving in personal justifications each time when the town is affected with a catastrophe. She promotions with the two disputants as though they were youngsters and is able to recover relaxed and serenity. She always keeps her personal mental baggage in have a look at, anticipate at the end when she whines hysterically, phoning upon the deceased Lauis We come accorss to have the importance details about Jocasta also by the hindsight of the activities that took location at some factor of Laius. It seems potential that Jocasta unquestionably same part of blanket with Laius which she operates now in the situation of Oedipus. She offered the youngster Oedipus to the shepherd so that he should depart it on the hill to die of visibility. This seems the heartlessness of a mom, but then, what was at share was the daily lifetime of her man and king, and for that, all other factors had to take second location. She was accessible and thoughtful to her servants, for she at once arranged to the request of the shepherd that he should be sent away from Thebes into the country. However, she seems to be competent of self-effacement. When a challenging luck forces her to take another man soon after the announcement of the loss of life of Laius, she seems to have posted tamely. Not once, this indicates, has she chatted to Oedipus about her first man. We do not know to what level Jocasta’s insufficient admiration towards the gods shows her actual features and to what level it is a position imagined as a way to relaxed down her spouse’s concerns. Perhaps there is a little of both these factors included in her mind-set. In her thoughts it is possibility and not the will of gods, which regulations individuals lifestyle and she looks for to turn her man also to this perspective which is a immediate contradiction of Ancient faith and morality: ‘’Fear? What has a man to do with fear?

Chance regulations our existence and the extensive run is all unidentified.

Best live as best we may, from day to day.

Nor need this mother-marrying frighten you;

Many a man has dreamt as much. Such things

Must be forgotten, if life is to endured.’’

Jocasta is the middle and essential character, whose importance is apparent because of all the moves around her immediately or in a roundabout way. She is horrible as well after disclosing the simple fact and the speed of that simple fact giving nothing but his spend to loss of life in appearance of spending suicide.

Modern day importance of this play

Many elements of the present day understanding of the loss owe their source to Sophocles. It was he who created one essential character the middle determines (protagonist) and the concentrate of awareness in ever loss. As Aristotle details out, it was Sophocles, who designed his and building plots in such a way as to create change and recognition their essential element. You will sensation influenced by the disasters of Sophocles is that of admiration for individual’s lifestyle and prices and spend for those who drop a sufferer to their mistakes or the machinations of luck. The stability between character and luck is very well taken care of by Sophocles. The dialogues in Sophocles are also more lifestyle than is the situation in the engage in of Aeschylus. Sophocles school of imagined seems to have imagined greatly over the concerns which dilemma person’s location in the galaxy, as well as the part and success of the person in community by every Era of man. His operates best include the substance of Ancient lifestyle and lifestyle at one of the best details in its historical past. After Sophocles all other well-known dramatists used the same tolls such as Marlowe’s’ Dr.Faustas’ and amount dreadful composing of Shakespeare, Entire Liar, Macbeth, Othello, Town and winter’s Tale. In present day Era many playwrights considers in the same framework and they adhere to the design to be profitable on the earth of loss.

Conclusion

Undoubtedly, Oedipus Rex is the excellent loss of Appearance and simple fact, of deep rooted to mind criminal offenses, Pride of a king to pathos of a pure man, of character and luck, of reality of prejudice moreover, simple fact of understanding.  Oedipus Rex in not only the biggest engages in of Sophocles but also the biggest Ancient engages in. Accordingly, to many critics it is the biggest engage in ever published. Aristotle in the Poetics gives very higher reward to this engages in. It is also acknowledged with owning one of the three best-implemented and building plots in all excitement. In this engage in Sophocles operates the sensational of developing dreadful suspense through activities caused by which is known to the viewers beforehand. The change and the recognition in this engage in develop out of the engage in itself. It is very well incorporated engage in, no element of which can either be transposed or eventually missed. It can also be considered as first investigator story in materials. Its composition, especially in the lyrical odes, offers an excellent normal beauty and haunting energy. There would be no overstatement in saying that Oedipus Rex in one of the glories of American Literature. To sum up the engage in it is an suitable loss which underlines the frailty of individuals fun and success by revealing that simple fact and reality are bitterest in method of success if it supports harshness for them.

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Athens The Great Empire

Posted on 21 November 2011 by Aajiz

Kings ruled Athens. They were the groups of noblemen ran the city until about BC. After passing some time they became a democracy. All people allowed meeting the Assembly except women and slaves. That assembly held forty times in a year. In this assembly, everyone could discuss issues and laws, problems, administration of Athens. Everyone could give his suggestion and points to improvements. Each person could speak only once. The Assembly elected judges who carried out the day-to-day business of the city, which included such things as taxes and planning.

“The darker side of Athens”

Athens Formed a civilization that had effect on the world for three hundred years (600 to 300 bc). Its art, medicine, science and its ideas on beauty, politics, religion, education, even on literature have an importance in our today’s life.

Instead of these all importance, there were some darker sides.

Living style:

There were few thousand rich homes but the majority of people lived in tiny houses without any facilities of life. These were deep in mud in winter or full of dust in the summer. There were a lot of dead bodies and live bodies of baby girl who thrown there to die. Wild dogs were eaten these bodies and sometimes slave dealers brought them for sell. In a dusty area they had dirty water to drink and for other purposes. In the huts of ordinary people, they had just floor to sleep. They had some pots for cooking and storage jars stacked against the wall. There was no any kind of soap and other kinds of modern things.

Slaves:

The Greeks were overall, kind people but they did not look upon slavery as wrong. Some slaves were those prisoners of war. The slaves has not any right even children also has not rights at all. They neglected as animals. They considered as cheap as donkey and worked a lot. Even Aristotle, one of the wisest of philosophers, talked of a freeman’s possessions being tools and living tools (meaning slaves). The very best thing was that a slave might become a police officer, clerk or schoolteacher, sometimes employed at city. The majority of them worked in the fields and in the artisans’ shops. Some of them are house slaves.

Athenswas so beautiful, cultured and advanced. Just rich women allowed out of the houses, slaves had no rights and outsiders even they might be rich merchants could not take part in the government. Of about 300,000 people in Athens in the 5th century, it estimated that smaller amount than 50,000 enjoyed the rights of voting.

Drunkenness:

There was a lot of drunkenness inAthens, specifically between the more wealthy men. There was a lot of drinking parties where the men go with their friends. They were free for drinking openly. Household women not admitted but professional performers entertained the drinkers with dancing and flute. The people could drink even in the bazaar. No one can stop them for doing so. The honor of family also involved in such types of activities therefore young boys liked drinking until late night. Late night drinking and bachelor parties allowed.

Ordinary women could not show her freedom and did not want her rights according to her life. Men could enjoy drunken parties without their wives. Wives of them could not go with them in these parties. Just rich women allowed going such types of drunken parties whenever held late night or daytime.

Women:

The freedom and liberty was dreadful for women inAthens. The girls married in their very early teens, they became a little better than their husband’s slaves did. They had few legal rights and did not leave their special rooms at the back of the house except for rare visits to religious ceremonies. Women spent their most time in spinning wool. They normally separately from the men. Their husbands could marry them off to anyone but after the man’s death, women were not free.

If he had not said in his will whom his widow must marry, the elder male in his family was supposed to find her other husband. Poorer women without slaves were a little better off because they had to go into the market to buy food, and some even stalls here.

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Aristotle’s Concept Of Tragedy

Posted on 25 August 2011 by Aajiz

“The Poetics” is primarily about the Tragedy that is considered the highest form of poetry. Abercrombie says:

“But the theory of Tragedy developed with such vision and understanding and becomes the kind of theory of literature.”

Aristotle shows that imitation is the common basis of all the fine arts, which differ in their imitation of the media, objects of imitation and how to imitate. Poetry differs from music in the middle of the imitation. Epic poetry and dramatic poetry differs based on imitation way. Dramatic poetry is itself divided into tragic or comic based on the objects of imitation. Tragedy imitates men better and comedy as worse than they are. Thus, Aristotle establishes the uniqueness of the tragedy.

Aristotle traces the origin and evolution of poetry. Previously, the poetry was of two kinds. There were “lambs” or “abusive”, on the one hand, that has evolved in satirical poems, and “hymns” in the gods or “praise” on the large, on the other side, which has evolved into epic poetry or heroic. Heroic poetry of tragedy developed, and out of the satirical comedy. Both epic and tragedy mimic serious subjects in a kind of poetry grandiose, but they differ in one kind of mimics to Epic, both suspects’ chorus and dialogue. The saga is long and varied, but the tragedy has a greater concentration and efficiency. Missing epic music, theater made the presentation and unity of action tragedy a.

“All the parts of an epic are included in Tragedy; but those of Tragedy are not all of them to be found in the Epic.”

Aristotle has an assessment of the nature and function of the tragedy. He defines tragedy as:

“the imitation of an action, serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude, in a language beautified in different parts with different kinds of embellishment, through actions and not narration, and through scenes of pity and fear bringing about the ‘Catharsis’ of these emotions.”

The definition separates tragedy from other poetic forms. First, the objects of imitation are serious to do otherwise Comedy imitates non-serious. ‘Serious’ means important, weighty. Tragedy on the basis of a second manner different from that epic tells and does not represent the actions. Thirdly, the medium is different from that opera. It employs a variety of decorations.

Aristotle regards the plot as the soul of a tragedy. Tragedy imitates “actions” and the plot consists of a sequence of events logical and inevitable. The action is as a whole. It has a beginning, middle and end.

The tragic plot must have a certain size or “length”. “Magnitude” means that the “size”. It should be long enough to allow the change from happiness to misery, but not too long to be forgotten before the end. Action too short cannot be considered good and beautiful parts are not clearly visible. The parts must be connected to each other and everything. It must be an ‘organic’ whole.

Aristotle divides the tragic plot “simple” and “complex.” The simple plot change in the fortunes of the hero is successful and the episode of Discovery, while the complex plot involves one or two. The episode is the change in the fortunes of the hero, and the discovery is a change from ignorance to knowledge. Aristotle rather complex plots their jumps, catches the eye and leads to the tragic function more efficiently. It is episodic plot, lack of probability and necessity, in the worst of all.

Aristotle places great emphasis on the need and the likelihood of the impact of a tragedy. This implies that there should be no external events and incidents. They inevitably succeed. No event or character must be redundant. They introduced the events should be expected in the circumstances.

By various embellishments in various parts, Aristotle means verse and song. Tragedy imitates the verse in the dialogue and singing in choric parties. Verse and song beautify and give pleasure. But Aristotle was not considered essential to the success of a tragedy.

Aristotle emphasizes that the function of tragedy is to present scenes of “fear and pity” and create a catharsis of these emotions. Suffice it to say that the catharsis of pity and fear, he believes their return to the right proportions as the desired “golden means.”

 

Aristotle lists six training or part of the tragedy, the plot, character, dictionary, I thought, spectacle and song. Two of these parts relate to the medium of imitation, one to the manner of imitation, and three to the object of imitation. Choral song found share of tragedy. Performance is more to do with stagecraft than writing poetry.

“Thought” is the power to say what for what is appropriate for the occasion. It is the language that gives us the thoughts and feelings of the characters. The language of tragedy is unusually expressive. Language tragedy “must be clear, and it should not be evil.” It must be grand and elevated with familiar and current words. ‘Rare’ and ‘unfamiliar’ words must be set in wisely to impart elevation.

Aristotle emphasizes four qualities essential to the characterization. First, the characters must be good but not perfect. Evil characters could be entering if required by the plot. Second, be suitable. Should have the characteristics of the profession or class to which they belong. Third, it must have seemed. For the likeness, this means that the characters must be living comparable. Fourth, there should be consistency in development. There should be no sudden and strange character.

Aristotle’s ideal tragic hero sets should not be all good or all bad. It is an ordinary man, the weakness and virtues, as, leaning over the side of good than harm, in a position of eminence, and the collapse of the hill, not because of willful sin, but due to some misjudgments, in turn, leads to a catharsis of the emotions of pity and fear.

Plots must arouse feelings of pity and fear, which is a function of tragedy. The tragic story is that they do not want to show () a perfectly good man moving from misery to happiness (b) the bad man will rise from misery to happiness (c) a very bad man has fallen from happiness into misery.

By comparing the size of the plot and characters, Aristotle is quite specific that the plot is more important than character. He even said that there could be a tragedy without character, but not without intrigue or plot.

 

Aristotle points out that one of the three units that unity of action; it is against the multiplicity of actions because it weakens the tragic effect. There may be many events, but must be related to each other, and they must all be conducive to an end. For a unit of time, Aristotle mentions it only once in relation to the dramatic action. Comparison of the epic and tragedy, he writes:

“Tragedy tries, as far as possible, to live within a single revolution of the sun, or only slightly to exceed it, whereas the epic observes no limits in its time of action.”

According to Aristotle, the end of poetry is pleasure, and right next to the pleasure of tragedy. Proper aesthetic pleasure can be possible only when the requirements of morality are satisfied. Verses and rhymes to enhance the pleasure of poetry. Peripeteia and Anagnorisis increase the operation seductive power. Pure pleasure to use the results of our feelings and thoughts about the tragic action.

These are the main features of the Aristotelian theory of tragedy. Aristotle knew only Greek tragedy. His conclusions based solely on the drama, which was familiar, and often his views are not universally applicable. In his opinion, could be questioned, but their history is the story of the tragedy.

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The Rape of The Lock As a Mock Epic

Posted on 09 August 2011 by Aajiz

The Rape of The Lock

The Rape of The Lock is the excellent mock epic in all aspects, grand style, grand theme, great hero and grand episodes in ridiculous manner.
Therefore it is called mock epic. The title of the poem ‘Rape of the lock’ indicates the mock heroic effects. The Rape is the most serious and moral offense which means the vindication of women’s chastity by force. The mean the cutting of lock is a great problem, morally, politically and society. The title of the poem evokes nothing but a mock heroic character of pope’s work.

The Rape of The Lock As a Mock Epic

  • Pope his made the mockery of the great heroic style and subject. The theme of ‘The Rape of the lock’ is cutting the lock of Belinda’s hair.
  • It is too trivial and too low to deserve any special treatment of epic theme, as pope says himself, ‘what dire offense from amorous causes spring, what mighty contest rice from trivial things’.
  • The Hero of ‘The Rape of The lock’ also indicates mock heroic effects. In the true epic great deeds of great hero are seem for the betterment of society.
  • In this mock epic the trivial incidents are done by trivial man who cuts the lock of Belinda of which he considers a great and adventurous deed, as text reveal ‘Say what a strange motives, Goddess would complete’
  • Used of machinery and supernatural characters. In pure epic the supernatural beings are Gods, Goddesses and Angels but in the mock heroic ‘The Rape of the lock’ the supernatural characters are sylphs and gnomes and nymphs.The light militias from the lower sky.
  • The structure of ‘The Rape of the lock’ is cast in the classical epic, but it is not serious epic.
  • It has divided into cantos. Like true epic it also has beginning, middle, and end, according to Aristotle’s concept of dramatic element in epic poetry.
  • The style of epic is sub line and dignified. The loftiness and sublimity is the soul of classical epic.
  • Triviality is not allowed in true epic. But in ‘Rape of the lock’ is common.
  • In classical Epic poetry Poets used long tale similes as does Spencer in Faire Queen and Milton in ‘The paradise lost’. He compares fallen Angels to autumn and Satan’s Shield with.
  • Pope has also used similes in trivial manners. He usessimiles when  Belinda demands her ravished lock from Baron as ‘Not fierce Othello is as load for the lanker chief that causes The Pain’

The Rape of The Lock As a Mock Epic By

AQSA RIAZ ( The Rape Of The Lock ).

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