Feminism Types and Definitions: Waves, Socialist, Culture, Standpint & Radical

Feminism

Throughout 19th century feminism raised as a movement of equalizing social, political, economic and domestic rights of women. This also included the scope of more opportunities for them in education and in office. Women were not allowed to take part in any sort of political activity or an activity which involved exposure of women and rise of their position. This movement was started through pen in west.

“Feminism should persist in seeing itself as a component or offshoot of enlightenment modernism, rather than as one more ‘exciting’ feature in a postmodern social landscape (Lovibond, 1993 Postmodernism: A reader cited in Aslam, 2012).”

Ahead of 1850s, the upcoming years were a glory for women who supported feminism as the movement got enhancement during this period. The alarming increase in the number of women craving for financial income was damn to high. It drew attention of international media towards the white women of Europe’s upper and middle class. The number single women in this aspect was greater than the women who were married. They were very few alternatives available for them to get married and have children. Feminism developed throughout 19th and 20th century gradually. Some experts called this gradual uplifting of feminism as “Waves of Feminism” and describe it three steps.

First Wave of Feminism

As mentioned above feminism strengthened its footing gradually throughout the 19th century by starting from the first phase. We can call ‘the first wave’ of feminism in early 19th century with the first serious step taken to achieve equality for feminine soul in some spheres of life. For example, social and legal representation of women along men through media were encouraged. It was not until the 1850s that the feminist movement got the grassroots growth officially and emerged worldwide due to its participant’s firm footing and steadfastness (Aslam, 2012:4).

Marry Wollstonecraft took a major part in progressing the development of feminism in England by expressing the structure of feminine communities of middle and upper class of England. The official body was formed under the leadership that came from the head quarter in Langham Palace in United Kingdom. Barbara Bodichon (1827-91) and Rayner Parkes (1829-1925) raised voice for middle class feminine bodies by meeting to talk about an issue and later forming an organization under which the first women’s journal published the ‘Great Britain’.

Main Agenda of First Wave of Feminism

The main cause of feminism was not to support the working women, nor the married women, but the unmarried ones in the middle of whole Victorian society. They were mainly concerned with the carrier, education and the find way of an alternative life for those who tend marrying not. They were actually concerned with the security to give psychological confidence to women that they can live with a masculine power too. Some of the modern feminine souls of those days considered themselves doing a social work instead of leading a movement and didn’t considered themselves as feminists, even the term was not yet introduced and later became to public awareness in 1895. The members of first wave feminism couldn’t address and express properly the problems faced by overall feminine bodies but they actually could express what they had experiences in their own personal lives.

Later they also became in favor of the married women and started working to secure their rights too. Their major successes included the introduction of college education for chaps. The education system at secondary level for women was also changed a lot by the influence of feminist movements. The privilege of residence for married women also remained a major objective of this movement for a long time. Opportunities were increased for educated women for participating in nationwide examinations and even worldwide carriers.

Major milestone was achieved as soon as the “Women’s Property Act of 1870” was introduced. The dedication brought some colors to the lives when the court started taking positive steps towards the rights of diverse women and the increasing facilities for care of their children but the movement really remained unsuccessful regarding the aspect of giving vote power to women which was later resolved after the first world war.

Second Wave of Feminism

The ‘First World War’ indicated towards the demolishment of the first wave and feminism was relighted by the struggle of Marsha Lier who renewed the movement and invented the term “The Second Wave Feminism”. All the struggles and achievements remained in Europe and here came USA with a totally different atmosphere and nothing achieved. Gender discrimination was at its peak, women were not allowed to take part in social activities and they had to gain a lot as the European women did. They were generally ignored as the priority taking issue of “Civil War” emerged and prevailed. Women started taking actions against the war and the discrimination and joined their hands together in form of groups to increase their importance and raised their slogans to get attention after being frustrated by consistent ignorance and gender discrimination at the second class level. Students also greatly got involved as feminine souls were not given such importance regarding education as the masculine were awarded.

Third Wave/Post-feminism

The failure of better organized second wave feminism movement insisted the linguists and other related individuals of all fields, especially feminists, to wage another movement to conclude the movement for feminine souls. It was called the third-wave of even the post-feminism which indicated the pure aim of concluding the issue. It distinguished itself from the second wave feminist movement by the aspects of every phase of feminine life which aimed at sexuality mainly. Female empowerment was developed sexually and female heterosexuality was boosted by the objectives of third wave feminism. The division of women into lower/upper/middle class and colors was harshly condemned by the feminists who followed the third wave feminism. Aslam (2012) described this part in a unique way as:

“Third-wave feminism is a phrase determined with several different variations of feminist action and research, whose real limitations in the historiography of feminism are a topic of controversy, but are often noticeable as starting in the Early and recurring to the existing” (Aslam, 2012:6).

Achivements of Third Wave of Feminism

The period between 1960s and 1990s victimized the effects of post second feminism and pre-third wave feminism which made it historic at its part with the development of the though and understanding that women are of “many colors, civilizations, cultures, regions, verities, and beliefs along with their social backgrounds” (Aslam, 2012). The third-wave encompasses a vast area as it deals with latest trends in feminine world keeping in view essentialism, femininity, heterosexuality, structuralism, gender differentiation, leadership and gender interpretation.

Another additional aspects of third-wave is it being called post-feminism. Since the 1980s there have been different things which need separation in clarification while discussion of feminism. The range of viewpoint differed and this part needed an exclusive name which was fulfilled by using the term post-feminism in termed along with post-modernism. The post-feminists remained in the circle of feminism but still criticized the third wave feminists as they thought that the feminine soul has achieved everything it needed to complete its body during the second wave feminism. Some linguists and literary personalities also went upon the idea that this thinking discrimination is main difference which caused the emergence of the term post-feminism. Even though the modern writers and researchers are aware of the conscience difference which is blamed of being a backlash of feminist movement.

Standpoint Feminism

The participants of second wane feminism faded away until 1980s and a few were left insisted upon the beginning of third-wave feminism and argued that feminist movement should include the major global issues faced by feminine body instead of just focusing  over the upper middle class of Europe. The issues they asked about to be viewed included rape, incest, prostitution and homosexuality and some cultural specifications such as the major gender discrimination at woman’s part in Africa and Middle East. This slogan was raised in order to understand the relation of racism, colonization, homosexuality and classifications with the gender inequality and distributions prevailed across the globe. The oppression towards women and the effects of dominance of masculine soul in patriarchal society also caused this idea to develop as for as possible in whole world.

Feminist Literary Criticism/Theory

Discussing the “feminist theory” more broadly we enter the phase of “feminist literary criticism” in the Victorian age the women of England’s upper and upper middle class were treated very badly as they were not allowed exposed themselves and get some attention by expressing their abilities. So it was obvious that every single action by a feminine soul was condemned harshly and the good abilities and talents always remained hidden from the world. This discrimination prevailed a state of hue and psychological complex amongst women. The aspect created a great problem and soon it became a social issue to promote the thinking of women and make the feminine community arise. Some men also joined their hands and starting preaching about the heavenly places where men and women were treated equally regardless of any gender discrimination and racial difference.

“The belief in the fact that there is a plural vision of this world which gives more importance to women and consider them equally significant as men, unaware of their class, is well explained in and advocated in feminist theory” (Richards: 1992 cited in Bibi, 2013:18).

Lois Tyson suggested of this being the major reason of women’s work on literature not considered equally important and wise as men’s. Another linguist Lisa Tuttle described the “feminist literary criticism” as “the way of asking new questions of old texts” (Bibi, 2013: 19).

Radical Feminism

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English: photo by Denis Gray (denisgray@hotmail.com) Kathleen Hanna with Bikini Kill – 17 January, 1996 – Annandale Hotel, Sydney Australia Terms of Use: All users of this image are required to attribute this work to “Denis Gray” (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The class of feminism which deals with the discrimination, opposition and oppression towards women by the patriarchal dominance of societies, covered under this topic by the name “radical feminism”. The superiority of men in many aspects of life kept women away from being in power. The “radical feminism” discusses this phase in detail and keeps a check on the solutions of this problem in literary circles (Bibi, 2013:19).

The students and researchers of “radical feminism” faced deep seated criticism against their views for taking the side of feminine soul which raises different issues over the time in all the classes regarding sexual harassment, homosexuality, discrimination, racial difference and class-based discrimination and lesbian production due unwilling to work with men as for their discrimination.

Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA)

Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA)

The goal of feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA) research, therefore, is to appear the complicated, simple, and sometimes not so simple, methods in which regularly obtained-for-allocated gendered presumptions and hegemonic energy interaction are discursive created, continual, mentioned, and pushed in different situations and cultural contexts.
Such a new is not merely an educational de-construction of text messages and discuss for its own benefit, but comes from a recognition that the concerns addressed (in perspective of affecting public change) have content and phenomenological repercussions for categories of men and women in particular cultural contexts. A feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA) viewpoint is obviously interdisciplinary in characteristics. On the one side, it plays a role in (critical) terminology and discussion research a viewpoint advised by feminist research, and however, it indicates the effectiveness of terminology and discussion research for the research of feminist concerns in sex, gender and women research.

Why Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA)?

For over a several decades, in several divisions of linguistic and discussion research, there has been a serious shift towards clearly such as the phrase ‘feminist’ in various sub-fields by feminist experts managing in these places, such as ‘feminist stylistics’ (Mills 1995), ‘feminist pragmatics’ (Christie 2000), and ‘feminist discussion analysis’ (e.g., Kitzinger 2000). In all these places, the popular research has been recognized by an apparently impartial and purpose questions, which feminist experts managing within have pushed. Composing more usually about feminism and language concept in 1992, Cameron described that one of her primary aims was to ‘question the whole scholarly purpose tendency of linguistics and to prove how presumptions and techniques of linguistics are suggested as a reason in patriarchal philosophy and oppression’ (1992: 16). The need to declare and find a feminist viewpoint in linguistic and discussion research is of course part of what feminists in academie have for many decades belittled and desired to change beyond male-torrent restraints in the humanities, public sciences, and sciences (Gordon 1986; Harding 1986; Spender 1981).

But remain, one might quite reasonably ask, ‘But why a feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA)?’ – for Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), as a research system, is known for its brazenly governmental place and is worried with research of various kinds of public inequality and disfavor. Furthermore, the tab Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) bounds to feminist techniques in female’s research, which offered an inspiration to the new area in the Nineteen-eighties, has also sometimes been freely recognized (Van Dijk 1991). Needlessly to say, therefore, feminist speakers have managed quite gladly under the prescript of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) without requiring to banner a feminist viewpoint clearly.

Then a need for a particular feminist brand now, Why? First, the most straightforward reason is that many research in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) with a sex or gender concentrate embrace a crucial feminist view of sex or gender interaction – they are inspired by the need to change substantively the existing circumstances of these interaction. This said, it is value emphasizing that not all studies that cope with sex or gender in discussion are actually feminist in this critical feel.

More other, concerns indicated by some feminist experts about Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) invite pause for believed. Cameron wrote: ‘[CDA] is one of those broadly modern tasks whose creators and major results are nevertheless all immediately white-colored men (1998: 969–70), and Wilkinson and Kitzinger (1995) particularly review on these male’s failing to prefer feminists by stating their work.’ Free from doubt, most feminist research in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is not performed by ‘straight white-colored men’, but by a variety of feminist females in a variety of regional places, not all of whom are white-colored and heterosexual. With respect to Wilkinson and Kitzinger’s statement, one might see that more latest theorizing in some places of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) does recognize and consist of, among other crucial public systematic research, feminist performs (e.g., Chouliaraki & Fairclough, 1999). With regards to a feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA), however, we might imagine more than details of feminist experts, essential as that is. It is necessary within Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to find a clearly ‘feminist policies of articulation’ (to lend a expression from Wetherell, 1995, p. 141), by which I mean the need to be advised by feminist concepts and ideas in theorizing and examining the apparently innocent yet oppressive characteristics of sex or gender as an omni-relevant classification in many public techniques. Eckert, such as, has mentioned how sex or gender functions in a more persistent and complicated way than other techniques of oppression:

Whereas the energy interaction between men and women are just like those between taken over and subordinated sessions and cultural categories, the day-to-day context in which these energy interaction are performed out is quite different. It is not a social standard for each managing classification person to be joined up for life with participant of the middle-class or for every dark-colored person to be so paired up for lifestyle with a white-colored person. However, our conventional sex or gender ideology dictates just this type of connection between men and women (1989: 253-54).

Lastly, an end result of the insufficient self-naming has intended that increasing amounts of feminist crucial discussion experts spread across the planet have not completely structured them/ourselves to come together in a typical community. The concerns of collectivity and of getting team exposure are now essential for another purpose. Although Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in its beginning decades had a minor place within the more founded popular places in linguistics, its reputation over the decades has led to a switch towards the center and, as some have suggested, has itself become an orthodoxy (Billig 2000). Composing in the beginning 90’s, van Dijk, one of the primary experts in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), remarked:

For Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to become a popular strategy in the humanities and public sciences, we should expect a multitude of guides, thousands of content and meeting documents, and unique symposia or meeting sections on yearly bases’ (1991: 1).

After a several decades later, all these have been obtained and more: this publication is testimony to that, along with the increasing number of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) guides, content, and worldwide conventions, as well as CDA’s (Critical Discourse Analysis
) addition as a trained topic on many linguistics applications globally. Feminist exposure and speech in ‘mainstream’ Critical Discourse Analysis CDA scholarships then, remarkably, also has a appropriate political work.

Why a feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA)?

The ‘discursive turn’ in much public medical and humanities research, as we know, has given reputation to concerns of terminology and discussion. poststructuralism provides a seriously useful perspective of discussion as a site of battle, where causes of public (re)production and contestation are performed out. Within feminist scholarships, the discursive convert is shown in guides outside linguistics (e.g., Weedon, 1997; Wilkinson & Kitzinger, 1995) as well as within linguistics under the rubric of ‘gender and language’ research (e.g., Baxter, 2003; Area & Bucholtz, 1995; Wodak, 1997). Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA), with its concentrate on public rights and change of sex, is a appropriate participation to the increasing body of feminist discussion literary performs, particularly in sex and terminology where feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA) has filled a amazingly minor place.

Wilkinson and Kitzinger (1995, p. 5) have mentioned that there is really ‘no necessary coincidence between the passions of feminists and discussion analysts’, even though the likelihood for successful involvement prevails. With regards to feminism and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in particular, however, there is actually much overlap in circumstances of public emancipatory goals. Indeed, as opposed to feminist techniques that use illustrative discussion analytic techniques, feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA) has the benefits of managing, at the beginning, within a politically spent, informative system of discussion research. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA provides a regarded theorization of the connection between public techniques and discussion components (see, e.g., Wodak & She 2001, for various kinds of theorization), and a variety of resources and techniques for particular studies of contextualized uses of terminology in text messages and discuss. Further, under the offset umbrella of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) research, particular studies of various kinds of wide spread inequality have been designed (refer, e.g., to content in Discourse and Society). Feminist discussion college students can understand much about the interconnections between and the particularities of discursive techniques used in various kinds of public inequality and oppression that can nourish back into crucial feminist research and techniques for telecommuting saves gas. The wedding of feminism with Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), in sum, can generate a wealthy and highly effective governmental check for activity.

Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA) as a governmental viewpoint on sex, worried with demystifying the interrelationships of sex, energy, and philosophy in discussion, is to the research of text messages and discuss similarly, which provides a remedial to techniques that give preference to one language use over another (see Lazar, 2005a). Frameworks for research of discussion in Critical Discourse Analysis CDA also, much, recognize a multimodal aspect (e.g., Kress & van Leeuwen, 1996; Scollon, 2001) that is usually losing in other techniques in linguistics. Significantly in Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) research, terminology is seriously evaluated together with other semiotic techniques like creation, templates, actions, and appears to be, which creates for an enhancing and informative research. Clearly, a multimodal perspective of discussion has great value for a natural feminist check of discursive designs of sex (Lazar, 1999, 2000).

Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis
English: One of the symbols of German Women’s movement (from the 1970s) Deutsch: Ein Logo der deutschen Frauenbewegung (aus den 70er Jahren) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)