Tag : literature

Literary study regarding women’s misery

Literary study regarding women’s misery

“A literature of their own” by Elaine Showalter exactly illustrates how the literature before the Victorian age differs from the modern age and the research also sketches the whole picture of the role of women in this aspect. Whole the research is laid down by her in three simple and seemingly broken down way, as she explains the very first way as by the name “Feminine”, which extends to the time interval 1840 to 1880, as it ends with the sad demise of one of the key feminine souls of the feminine body, George Eliot. The second one being the “Feminist”, which extends from 1880 to 1920, and it goes like beginning from Eliot’s death and ending at the successful achievement of women in the vote movement they started. And it came to an end in the 1960’s with the new level of confidence in female soul which started prevailing in 1920 and with the fierce name of the “Females” by Showalter. (Showalter, 1977, p.17)

She takes a care of the other subcultures while studying these, her self created, levels of women’s sufferings and struggle. She also discusses the aspect of the Dark (Black people) and the oppressed feminine souls in patronizing cultures. The reason behind the astonishing solidarity in the character of a woman even being a hell emotional and a lot self obsessed is “a distributed and much discreet and ritualized actual physical meet… the female sex-related life-cycle” (Showalter, 1977). Feminist writers have always written keeping in view this common aspect, and they have influenced a lot on the minds of readers of all time by their themes. This makes women a whole body which share same issues and have same problem which make them unite, and off course, when a unity comes in formation, it makes its functions, aims, objections and perhaps, some oppositions. In this case the main opposition which is formed automatically and without any conscious effort is the patriarchal leadership and patronizing system of governing a society.

Literature never forms without getting an influence from the reality of life. It first develops in the streets of the nation and slowly comes to the official level entering into the mini screen of the culture. Then it develops in the literature slowly when the literary figures of the nation starts using it in an informal way of expressing their character’s feelings in an effective way. The process of replica of the syntax is followed by this process immediately. This is called the “internalization of replica’s requirements of art and its opinions on community tasks” in literary perspective (Showalter, 1977). The Role of female soul in this literary evolution is mandatory and major as feminine soul is known for its self-obsession, firm grasp and the ability, or in some cases disadvantageous property of getting easily influenced. Some of the feminist roles responsible for this big revolution are Bronte’s, Elizabeth Gaskell, Elizabeth Browning, MartineauEliot, and  Nightingale. The later batch of the same school consists of Charlotte Yonge, Dinah Crack, Margret Oliphant, and Elizabeth Lynn Linton.

With the development of literary Feminism the activists of the nations gained a boost and started their activities on a larger scale. They also expressed their desire of living a leading life of men and starting the protest of getting their rights silently. They named it “Protest while Obedience” according to Showalter. The fact that during the Victorian age the women of the novel writing industry did a lot to secure their place in the community and form a parallel community which functions as the masculine souls, and they were also, to an extent, successful in their aim, as the Victorian age in literary perspective is commonly known for the works of feminine feminists, but still, this could not change the fact of women being disabled of writing metaphorically sensible novels and creating other such pieces of literature (Showalter, 1977). According to some critics, this was their way of getting freedom from the bitter fact of them being the property of the patriarchal authority of the Victorian supremacy, but according to the point of view of the researcher, this statement becomes a lot oppressive and racist as the women are directly hit in this critique.

The next topic which comes on the board of discussion is Showalter’s second division or level 2 of the issue, namely “Feminine Opposition”. Eyelash out against the conventional requirements and principles, strenuous their privileges and sovereignty be acknowledged. In this Feminist level, feminist literature had different perspectives of assault. Some women had written community commentaries, converting their own sufferings to those of the inadequate, the working class, slaves, and hookers, thereby air flow their feeling of disfavor in a right style. They extended their area of effect by making inroads into community work. In an absolutely different route, the 1870s feeling books of Mary BraedonRhoda Broughton, and Marryat, explored truly extreme female demonstration against wedding and women’s financial oppression, although still in the structure of feminine conferences that required the erring heroine’s devastation (Showalter 1977). Their golden-haired doll-like paradigms of womanhood concept contemporary goals of Angels in the House by switching out to be mad bigamist and would-be murderess.

Militant suffragists also had written prolifically during this demonstration level of literature. Females such as Sarah Grand, George Egerton, Mona Caird, Elizabeth Robins, and Olive Schreiner made “fiction the automobile for a dramatization of offended womanhood… demand[ing] changes in the community and governmental techniques that would allow women men privileges and need chastity and constancy from men” (Showalter, 1977). On the, Showalter discovers these women’s documents not illustrations of excellent literature. Their tasks worried themselves more with a concept than the making of art, though their denial of male-imposed descriptions and self-imposed oppression started out the gates for development of female identification, feminist concept, and the feminine visual.

The third interval, then, is acknowledged by a self-discovery and some independence “from some of reliance of opposition” (Showalter, 1977) as a method for self-definition. Some authors end up switching in during the following search for identification. In the beginning 50 percent of Females level of composing, it carried… the doubled history of feminine self-hatred and feminist drawback… [Turning] more and more toward a separatist literature of inner area (Showalter, 1977). Dorothy RichardsonKatherine Mansfield, and Virginia Woolf proved helpful towards a female visual, increasing libido to a world-polarizing perseverance. Moreover, the feminine experience and its innovative ways organized mystic significance — both transcendental and self-destructive weaknesses.

They applied the social research of the feminists [before them] to terms, phrases, and components of terminology in the story (Showalter, 1977).

 However, Showalter criticizes their performance for their and orgiastic natures. For all its issue with sex-related descriptions and libido, the composing prevents real get in touch with the body, disengaging from people into “A Room of One’s Own.

This modified when the feminine novel joined a new level in the 1960s. With 20th Century Freudian and Marxist research and two hundreds of years of female custom, authors such as Iris Murdoch, Muriel Spark, Doris Lessing, Margaret Drabble, A.S. Bayt, and Beryl Bainbridge accessibility women’s encounter-rs. Using formerly taboo terminology and circumstances, “anger and libido are approved… as resources of female innovative power” (Showalter, 1977).

Showalter’s research reveals how development of women’s composing achieved this level and conveys all the disputes and battles still impacting the existing of women’s literature.

women[ ATTRIBUTE: Please check: http://www.flickr.com/photos/29069717@N02/24893574536 to find out how to attribute this image ]

  • Showalter, Elaine. A literature of their own: British women novelists from Brontë to Lessing. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1977.

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Psychological Analysis

Psychological Analysis

It will be pointed out some main psychological features of this character that will further help the reader create and understand the complex teenager that is Stephen. From the very beginning, Stephen, possessing an undeniably aloof personality, himself admits that he is in some way different from others. He notes that is “hardly of the one blood” (Joyce, 2008, p.75) with his family, indicating that his life is filled with isolation, a sense of insecurity and growing independence.

At first, as suggested by Foley (2008), while indulging his family’s wishes, appeasing the religious ideals of the community and church and trying to fit in, Stephen also tries to identify himself as an individual and goes through various stages. 

“…..constant voices of his father and of his masters, urging him to be a good catholic above all things….When the gymnasium had been opened he had heard another voice urging him to be strong and manly and healthy and when the movement towards the national revival had begun to be felt in college yet another voice had bidden him to be true to his country and help to raise up her language and tradition” (Joyce, 2008, p.65).

The pressure from expectations gradually becomes a burden and his soul search finally results in art a mea of breaking the cage. To Stephen art was nevertheless a way of liberating his soul by fulfilling his hunger for meaning not with what was imposed upon him by others but by something originating from inside himself. Stephen‘s path toward becoming an artist is seen at every step while going through the novel. His first act of courage, independence and rebellion is when he protests his palm-whipping. Later on, he would also commit heresy when writing a school essay and reject priesthood. The growing gap between him and his family, especially his father is ever more obvious as time passes.

“Old father, old article, stand me now and ever in good stead.” James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artistic as a Young man” (1916)

Adolescent Psyche (Problems, Challenges and Constraints)

Stephen has experienced severe traumas in the early course of their lives. Namely repeated financial troubles which Stephen was a witness of and the deep divide over the question of religion and patriotism within his own family. It can be observed that Stephen‘s relations with his siblings are rarely mentioned and subsided, irrelevant to the overall story and formation of the artist. Stephen in times of stress and sorrow only occasionally relishes in the memories of his childhood, such as his friendship with a boy named Aubrey Mills or eating slim Jim out for his pocket cap. Stephen is experiencing religious, national and pressure from his family.

In an other opinion:

An adolescent individual will always be forced with multiple form of expectations and regardless of whether they are coming from the family, schools or society, it is the way these teenagers deal with what is expected of them with their own strength, mental potency and emotional capacity and deciding whether they are going to fulfill these expectations or not that will define them as a person later on, as opposed to the expectations themselves.

Personal and Social Manifestations

Joyce consumes alcohol; and uses foul language often, depicting some of the negative sides of adolescence and the temptations it brings along. Stephen, on the other hand, does not fall under these temptations or the pressure of conformity, but rather commits sins such as gluttony. Sex represents an important part of lives of this two teenager- Stephen Dedalus felt that “his childhood was dead or lost and with it nothing but a cold and cruel loveless lust” (Joyce, 2008, p.73)

Remained within his soul. He also believed that out of lust, all other sins originate easily. Lust and love for aesthetic beauty combined, however, lead him to numerous encounters with young prostitutes of Dublin. What can be noticed in Stephen‘s behavior is that through isolated, he is actually trying to protect himself even through he, like everyone else needs human contact and compassion. Of course, the boy had that “special someone” present in his live- Stephen  on the other hand , also idolizing the image of Emma , a girl who he has never actually met , through still considered her to be the temple of beauty and a symbol of femininity finds himself ashamed and daunted by the thoughts of his own teenage fantasies:

“If she knew to what his mind had subjected her or how brute- like lust had torn and trampled upon her innocence! Was that boyish love? Was that chivalry? Was that poetry? The sordid details of his orgies shrank under his very nostrils” (Joyce, 2008, p.79).

It must, however, be note that the contradictions of his actions and sins against his position and role in the society did not seem to bother him at times. It can be concluded that traumatic experiences, unreasonable expectations and the lack of support are just some of the burdens halting a normal development of an individual during his or her teenage years. The result of these factors can vary from some of the negative, above mentioned perpetual circle of awkwardness and discomfort.

Source: Pdf File

A Dog’s Tale Study Guide and Summary


Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) 1835-1910

“All modern American Literature comes from one book by Mark Twain Called Huckkberry Finn” (Hemingway)

“I believe that our heavenly father invented man because he was disappointed in the monkey.” (Darwin Theory, Twain)

Literary Masterpiece:

The Celebrated Jumping Frog (1867)

The Innocent Abroad (US/UK Prejudices)

“I have no race prejudice”

Dictated Autobiography to A.B Paine (Pub. 1924)

“He had a dream,” I say, “and it shorts him.”

“Funny Dream,” the doctor says (Huckleberry Finn)

 A Dog’s tale Introduction

In A Dog’s Tale Mark Twain used metaphorical language. His style of writing is narrative and Subjective. He also called new trend set in American literature and appreciated art of characterization through animal characters due to his animal saving interest (wild life) and his first book titled by The National Anti-Vivisection Society, (NAVS) as animated animal’s characters for the very first time in the history.


The book is told from the perspective of a loyal pet, a dog was even described by the first sentence of the story, “My father was a St. Bernard, my mother was a collie, but I’m a Presbyterian.”The story begins with a description of the life of the dog as a puppy and its separation from its mother before it was inexplicable. Her new baby puppy and its owner added soon to his new home. When a fire broke out in the nursery, the dog risks his life to take the child to safety.

In the process, her are motives misunderstood and cruelly beaten. Soon, however, the truth about the situation and she discovered endless praise. Later in history, his puppy died after his biological experiments. Only a servant seems to realize the irony and said, “Poor little dog, you saved his child!” Ultimately. Pines dog inconsolable at the tomb of the puppy with clear implications that it will do so until death

A Dog’s tale Critical Study

Chapter 1

Dog vs. Human being

In first chapter from the start of the story, Twain made parallel comparison between animal and human being as he gave human names or use of allusion like St. Bernard, Collie, and Presbyterian

Reflection of the modern age

We also observed that the reflection of modern age was also there in very first chapter of story through church school and neighborhood activities as we are doing also now a days.

                                                “Children to Sunday school, dogmatic gathering in the neighborhood,”


In first aspect of humor is very prominent aspect. The character of dog’s mother like dictionary and if she did not know anything, she explained that thing in a new way every time.

“It seemed like a dictionary speaking and explained it a new way every time”

Use of metaphor

Mark Twain used metaphorical language in the story. Some we saw comparison of animal represented through the flowers and have no fear of anything but anything like flower have no fear.

“Yes, she was a daisy, she was not afraid of anything”

Use of simile

As Chaucer, we consider him the father of poetry, he represented the month of April in a very beautiful way. Mark Twain also described summer as very beautiful way through simile.

“As calm as summer’s day”

Hollowness of feelings

Human’s hollow look was there in very specific age. People were searching for beloved ones whom would felt their feeling in many ways. So the aspect of hollowness of felling is also very important in story.

“She Fell over and rolled and laughed and barked in the most insane way”


“King Charles spaniel could remain entirely despicable in her society”

Chapter 2


“Live it for the best good of others and never mind about the results they were not our affair”

Religious approach

“She had gone to the Sunday-school with the children and had laid them up in her memory those other words and phrases”

Parent children farewell

“We looked our last upon each other through our tears”


“When there is a time of danger to another do not think of yourself, think of your mother and do as she would do”

Chapter 3

Human vs. Animals

“I was the same as member of family they loved me and petted me”

Children Psychology

“The baby was a year old and fond of me and never could get enough of hauling at my tail, innocent happiness”


“The laboratory was not a book or a picture that is the lavatory”

Age reflection

“He was a renowned scientist I do not know what the word means but my mother”

Use of irony

“There could not be happier dog that I was or a grateful one”


“Then came the winter, a spark from the wood fire short out and it lit on the slope of the tent”

Internal monologue

“My mother’s farewell was sounding in my ears; I dragged the baby out of the flames”


“Begun you cursed beast and I jumped to save myself and stroked me furiously with his cane”

Use of irony

“I did not know I had done to make him so bitter and so unforgiving”

Hunger theory

“They called and called day nights, hunger and thirst drive me mad”

“Come back to us — oh come back to us, and forgive”


“When the people wanted to know what made me limp they looked ashamed and change the subject”

Science as destroyer

“They discussed optics that certain injury to the brain would produced blindness or not”

“Suddenly the puppy shrieked and they set him on the floor”

“There I have won — confess it he is a blind as a bat”

Death and Hope

“I know the puppy was out of its pain know, footman dug a hole and I saw he was going to plant the puppy”

“I have watched two whole weeks and he does not come up like Robin Adair”

“Poor little doggie, you have saved HIS child”

“The Humble little friend is gone where the beasts that perish go”

By: Muhammad Afzal

Frankenstein Study Guide and Summary

Frankenstein By Mary Shelley Study Guide and Summary

Table of Contents

Lord of the Flies Study Guide and Summary

Lord of the Flies Study Guide and Summary

Important Quotations Explained

Key Facts

Study Questions & Essay Topics

Suggestions for Further Reading

Bacon as a prose stylist

Bacon’s Style

In fact, the secret of Bacon’s style strength lies in its brevity. Virtually no writer, ancient or modern, has managed to compress so much in so little meaning compass, various tests, such as “studies and negotiations” – are marvels of condensation Perhaps the most. Bacon’s style is fascinating that no one can remain indifferent. In other words, as a prose writer is passionate admirers or detractors. It is interesting to note that these two extremes are caused by the same style properties. Bacon, inaugurated the modern era of English prose. FG Selby says,

“Part of the influence of Bacon is obviously the charm of his style”

“The quality of the force in the style of bacon is intellectual rather than emotional”

To be sure there is a marked difference in the style of his earlier trials and his family later. But the important fact is that the difference is one of the approach and not a technology. Test Bacon originally thought to be anything but a newspaper “dispersed meditations.” Therefore, the previous tests are rare and lapidary scrawl of his remarks on domestic issues, political, intellectual, moral, religious and social. Consequently, the informed reader can see that these tests are only skeletons of thought grouped around a single theme. “On education” in this category. In this essay, we see that Bacon is a quick and chatty writing — almost as if speaking to himself:

“Men despise Crafty studies, simple men admire them, and wise-use”

Allusions In Bacon’s Style

It should be noted that the aphoristic nature of the dictionaries can be found in his essays later. The difference is that, over time, Bacon, tongs tonic-strong rhythm of his sentences. This is because; he realized that his rapidly growing readership consists of people with tastes and reading skills. We compare the pace of the above lines of that rite of passage into “difficulties”, which is one of his later essays:

“We see in needle works and embroideries, it is more pleasing to have a lively work upon sad, solemn ground, than to have a dark and melancholy work upon a lightsome ground”

The brilliant rhetoric is the same in both passages. So it is concise and succinct vigor. Although Bacon’s penchant for juxtaposition of thesis and antithesis is seen in both cases. The main difference is that the first pass, it is designed so that Dean Church was moved to say that the words “

“… Down likes a hammer …”

By contrast, the second passage flows more smoothly, like a melody at once. In its early days, Bacon made his concise style ignoring superfluous adjectives, conjunctions and connectors. Later, aims to craft balanced sentences, consisting of two parts. The first part is a declaration and the second is an explanatory analogy. For example:

“He that hath wife and child hath given hostages to fortune; for they are impediments to great enterprises either of virtue or mischief”

Bacon phrases are modern in structure than the other Elizabethan prose being sharper and less involved. Even in its more complex sentences are built with such care and inversions in a free way that is not hard to catch. Essays, in particular, are significant, and the balance point, of course, cannot wait for their aphoristic style. This is really strange when you consider that he also wrote sentences like this:

“A lie faces God and shrinks from man”

Or this

“The ways to enrich are many, and most of them foul”

It ‘true that the cavalier attitude of the grammar is clearly visible in the second sentence. But most people would agree that they have no problem understanding what the writer has to say. It should be noted that the age of Bacon, little attention was paid to the logical division of the subject to pieces. One of the pleasurable aspects of Bacon’s style is to use his images and, as a result. Consider the termination of his pride, “self-righteousness”:

“The fly sat upon the axle-tree of the chariot wheel said,
what a dust do I raise?”

Two Bacon’s Style As Conclusion:

The above analysis shows that Bacon had two styles of writing. Rather, you can say it was the same style, which has applied in different ways, if the situation demanded. Surely this is just one of the reasons why his admirers claim to be one of the greatest prose stylists in English.

Othello, The Moor of Venice Study Guide and Summary

  • Plot SummaryBrief description of the plot of Othello, including important action. A good first step, before reading the original text.
  • Characters: Review the role of each character in the drama, including the definition cite character and motivations of the main characters.
  • Characters Analysis: Critical essay by influential Shakespeare scholar and commentator William Hazlitt, discussing all you need to know on the characters of Othello.
  • Themes: Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.