Patriarchy and its Discourse

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Patriarchy and its Discourse

Early feminists of Victorian age revolted against patriarchal language but post structuralist feminists did not just focused upon suffrage movement but the developed the issue and rebel against the male dominance. Iragery (1998) views that patriarchal discourses are based upon power and political determinism. The same politics and power developing discursive femininities through language is differently cited and viewed by Julia Kristina, (Strangers to ourselves, 1989), Gayatri Spivak (On other worlds, 1995), Catharine Clemet’s (Opera,1998 undoing of women).

SUBJECTIVITY AND BEASLEY’S VIEW

Beasely also views that women are considered as pet creature to men. They have to work the household and to develop the children instead of the professionals like doctor and architecture. The fiction must play role to construct subjectivity about women. The term subject and subjectivity refers that meaning in text are never fixed. It is the reader that construct it .the research aims to investigate the patriarchal effects created in the text developed by Ibsen in “A Doll’s House”.

MILLS DISCOURSE

Sara Mills views that the women. about its importance  feminism over the writings of founded through travel writings that was not earlier developed femininities within society. Female writers of Victorian age and post modern age have visible subject matter differences in literary works (Morris, 1979: 23). She analyses the women travel writers theme of discourses. Though all their works are Hetrogenitic and complex phenomenon. Constraints in writings have been used by female writers (Hulme 1986, O Porter 1982).

Victorian age is considered that few feminist writers emerged at the surface due to the patriarchal oppression. Colonial discourses and Victorian literature finds less similarities due to cross cultural impact and text (Worley, 1986: 40). Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Hulman and Mary Louise used objectivity, escapism and  especially individuality is key subject that is contradictory to literature of female writers of 19th century. Imperialism represented the real picture of the British women.

Foucault’s work on power and language ‘he believes that power is economy (Focault, 1992a: 109). He further says that speech acts of text and discourses represent reality by organizing them and finding the fluidity and unspoken elements of discourses. He concludes the ambiguity in women writings using the language as authority and power.

 The surface and deeper level analysis predicts the facts as “Hermeneutic” analysis says that there is no text, the thing is interpretation.

“Power is convinced as sort of grand,absolute subject… who attributes what is forbidden on the side on which power is suffered. There is an equal tendency to ‘subjective’ it, by determining the point at which the acceptance of the indirect occurs, the point at which one says ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to power” (Foucault in Morris and Patton, 1979: 54).

Mills finds out the failure of critics in finding out the Gender identity and lack of perceptions. She concentrate on short texts and represent the discourse analysis of feminist perspective. She argues that women writers should frame different types of discourses. The key types are Confessional discourse and Feminine discourse. Confess is there to adhere the reality and admit the daily facts that are not confessed by writers. The second one she stats that represents the femininity and heterosexuality. She pictures the representation in famous book “Feminist Stylistics”1995. She clearly concludes that writing style of women is different than male writer. She believes that foregrounding in texts makes it different. In representation of text gender is necessary element .the speech acts; language of discourse is actually reflection of the writer’s gender identity.

CLASSICAL VS MODERN PATRIARCHY  

It is an agreed fact by research and scholars that women is always taken as the subordinate and inhabitant creature. Women has been represented by weak and negative characters since the origin of the English literature.

“BEOWOLF”  and other ancient vernaculars shows the dominance and authoritative value of male being the patriarchal society. On the other hand the famous writers like Shakespeare represents female in comedies and tragedies “King Lear, Twelfth Night” in same boat, G.B Shaw in Major Barbra and ‘The Arms and the Men’, Ibsen in ‘A Doll’s House while in poetry John Donne in “A Faerie Queen” and Chaucer’s character “A Wife of Bath” represented the women in their patriarchal ideological sense. As far the modern dramatists concern we see after the third wave of feminism women is quite different in gender role. O Neil’s drama “Juno & Paycock” is one of the senile representation of women as domesticated animal in male dominated society.

The stereotypical role of men and women is beautifully depicted by Virginia Woolf in (Women and fiction, 1998). She argues that our fathers are distinctive that made law but what about our mothers that just a tradition.

             “One was beautiful, one was red haired, one was kissed by a queen, we know nothing of them except  their names and dates of their marriages and number of children they bore” (Woolf in Women and Fiction, 1998).

 It is described by different feminists that sex is biological category while gender is social construct (Weedon 1987 & Millet 1997). Modern male writers presents the role of the female in society in real sense as Henrik Ibsen points out the gender role of ‘NORA’ in ‘A Doll’s House’. The terms got popular in 1960 by Lakoff’s article “Language and Women place”, he argues that both sex are different in talk and all is result of male supremacy. Judith believes that modern feminists committed a mistake by talking female common in character and objectives (Gender Trouble 1990).

Patriarchy & Discourse

Feminism and Virginia Woolf

Feminism and Virginia Woolf

In the race of feminism, one of the great feminist writer was Virginia Woolf. She is the pioneer of the literature reflecting the women troubleanities, inequalities, gender and identities differences, femininity (ies) and masculinity (ies) with true pen. Earlier the women was represented by the male writer in literature, that is why we find “Pamela” and Shakespearean women in ‘king Lear’ and ‘Hamlet’ as subordinate class. Even Donne’s women are not optimist in poetry. The patriarchal discourses was firstly was challenged by Virginia Woolf in  “A ROOM OF ONE’S OWN”.

Feminism piece of literature that forces the female by its tremendous discourse to revolt against patriarchy and seeks equality and rebel to male dominance.

She was a “touch stone” for contemporaries and predecessors. Woolf believes that women are socially and economically disable. Men have prejudice and economic selfishness(1992: 14). She also uses the stream of consciousness by representing the feelings and emotions suppressed by men by physical torture and linguistic choices in  discourses. She expresses her feeling as

                       “A room which a women may call her own and which she can be inhabit with same freedom as her brother”(Woolf, 1992: 191).

The male dominance and female subjugation is strictly criticized by realistic pen. She argues that fluidity comes if women have same freedom of expression like men. She argues further that women will not contribute in literature due to less access and material resources available to men. She strictly follows the capitalism and Marxism by saying that poverty has bitterly affected the literature.

Woolf, Language and Power

Spender (1980) states in hi most famous book “Men Made Language” that language in origin and implication men made. Male has strict control over language as power and claim to be master and women are subordinate to men in all patriarchal societies. She tells that men construct femininity (ies) through language. Spender is mile stone in feminism. Amebella Moorey & Sutori Soden (2010) argues in “Language, Society and Power (an introduction), that society, culture, ethnicity, class and gender has strong grip at thought. It is determiner of class and status. Language construct identities and femininity (ies). It is complex phenomenon of social construct.

         Jenifer Coates, 2004 (women, men and language) justify that how male form dominance by language and talk differently and using  language as power and prejudice. They are actually all the followers of Woolf.

 

Feminism: Portrait of Virginia Woolf
Portrait of Virginia Woolf (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

FEMINISM A SHORT HISTORY

WHAT IS FEMINISM

 

According to oxford dictionary the term feminism means

“The advocacy of women rights on the grounds of political social and economic equality to men”(oxford dictionary)

John Johnson Lewis points out that feminism movement is contradictive and unequal stasis to women in patriarchal society on the base of social, ideological, racial, ethnical and cultural belief. It is corner stone for women. There have been different movements rum by modern and post modern feminists to make the identities and femininities desirable

 

A SHORT HISTORY OF FEMINISM

The term “Feminism “ got popularity since 19th century this was considerable movement for equal status of women that has lost in all aspects since creation of men. English language is manmade and also remained conservative cultural inspect over society in gender, identity and femininity perspective. Aristotle said “female is a female by virtue of a certain lake of qualities “. But later authors, writers recognized the fact and started to deconstructed the lost identity of women that is not a nut shell or miraculous and of male dominance in language and society it is dependent upon historically divided  three waves and to be continue yet.

Though feminism got route in 18th century from America and Britton. A movement “A vindication of rights of women” was started by Wellstone craft. Later on mill also sported. Suffrage movement was first pace at large level. Maggie Humn discussed about different psychoanalytical linguistic theories in construction of femininities by women movement. Virginia Woolf played a vital role by creating conscious to women and wrote “A Rome of one’s own “.

Second wave of feminism developed in 1960. Simone de Beauvoir published 1960. New feminist news paper, Enouvelles feminism and a journal “questions feminists, Marxism, capitalism, civil right movement started.”The second sex is a master piece that is panacea to seek the binary cultural construction and male supremacy. Friedan’s talk for Heterosexuality and molded the women.

Third wave feminism is based on strucuctural and post structural and Maxilion theories that identify the gender and sexual differences. Elaine Showaltr argueswomen representation in literature is dominated by male discourse.  Dale spender (1980) suggested that women are under oppression of men constructed by his language to.  She consider it a social construction and complex in nature.  Lackoff, women language is inferior by male dominance in patriarchal society. The idea of motherless and fatherless discourse was influenced by post structuralism. we find a clear interruptions in famine text based on subjectivity after influence of third wave of feminism. This is the great achievement of feminist movements that genders is both male and female a social construct based on biological differences the sex and gender and masculinity and femininity are more elaborated and influenced throughout cultures. It also explore the language role on sex, identity ideology and political grounds.

Feminism
Woman-power symbol (Photo credit: Wikipedia)