What is Plagiarism?

Download (PPTX, 690KB)

What is Plagiarism?

Etymology of the word “plagiarism”

In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius (literally kidnapper), to denote someone stealing someone else’s work, was pioneered by Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had “kidnapped his verses.” This use of the word was introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist Ben Jonson, to describe as a plagiary someone guilty of literary theft.

The derived form plagiarism was introduced into English around 1620.

DEFINITION

According to the Merriam-Webster On-Line Dictionary, to “plagiarize” means

1. To steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own

2. To use (another’s production) without crediting the source

3. To commit literary theft: to present as new and original, an idea or product, derived from an existing source.

 

Stanford sees plagiarism as “use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person’s original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form”

The practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own is plagiarism.

(http://www.mdc.edu)

So what is plagiarism?

 

1. Plagiarism can occur on any academic assignment, not just papers.

2. Plagiarism is not limited to copying other peoples’ work, but includes failing to cite your sources properly or revising others’ work to make it sound like your own.

3. If you don’t use quotation marks correctly, you are plagiarizing! If you don’t use footnotes correctly, you are plagiarizing! If you copy someone else’s work and try to mask it by changing words or sentences around, you are plagiarizing!

But can words and ideas really be stolen?

According to U.S. law, the answer is yes.  In the United States and  many other countries, the expression of original ideas is considered intellectual property, and is protected by copyright laws, just like original inventions.  Almost all forms of expression fall under copyright protection as long as they are recorded in some media (such as a book or a computer file).

All of the following are considered plagiarism

1. Turning in someone else’s work as your own
2. Copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit
3. Failing to put a quotation in quotation marks
4. Giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation
5. Changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit
6. Copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not.

TYPES OF PLAGIARISM

1. CLONE

Submitting another’s work, word-for-word, as one’s own

2. CTRL-C

Contains significant portions of text from a single source without alterations

3. FIND – REPLACE

Changing key words and phrases but retaining the essential content of the source

4. REMIX

Paraphrases from multiple sources, made to fit together

5. RECYCLE

Borrows generously from the writer’s previous work without citation

6. HYBRID

Combines perfectly cited sources with copied passages without citation

7. MASHUP

Mixes copied material from multiple sources

8. 404 ERROR

Includes citations to non-existent or inaccurate information about sources

9. AGGREGATOR

Includes proper citation to sources but the paper contains almost no original work

10. RE-TWEET

Includes proper citation, but relies too closely on the text’s original wording and/or structure

 

Self-plagiarism

Reading the following line, can you guess the meaning of the term self-plagiarism.

“Self-plagiarism involves dishonesty but not intellectual theft.“ (David B. Resnik)

Self-plagiarism (also known as “recycling fraud”) is the reuse of significant, identical, or nearly identical portions of one’s own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or without citing the original work. It is common for university researchers to rephrase and republish their own work, tailoring it for different academic journals and newspaper articles, to disseminate their work to the widest possible interested public. One of the functions of the process of peer review in academic writing is to prevent this type of “recycling”.

CRITICISM ON SELF-PLAGIARISM

The concept of “self-plagiarism” has been challenged as self-contradictory. Stephanie J. Bird argues that self-plagiarism is a misnomer, since by definition plagiarism concerns the use of others’ material. Bird identifies that in an educational context, “self-plagiarism” refers to the case of a student who resubmits “the same essay for credit in two different courses.”

 

HEC’s Plagiarism Eradication System

HEC’s goal is to combat plagiarism effectively in an academic environment in all institutions while ensuring that the students and academicians know that stealing someone’s intellectual property is unethical and can lead to serious consequences. For this, IT division has sought for technological solution and acquired an online software tool to assist in identifying the plagiarized material from documents. The software tool, iThenticate and Turnitin are amongst the leading software used globally for such purposes. The facility is provided to all higher education institutions across the country and is in use since 2007. This web based service is available at http://www.turnitin.com and 1000 licenses for each of the universities/ institutes have been acquired and handed over to teaching faculty, post graduate students and researchers in order to address the issue at the grass root level. A total of one hundred and twenty seven (127) HEIs have been provided with this facility. At present there are 7170 instructors registered with this acquired services, whereas the number of students are more than 15,000. During past five (05) years, nearly 150,000 articles and/ or documents have been submitted to generate the Originality Report.

How do these software help?

1. Educators can check students’ work for improper citation.
2. Helps instructors in saving time spent on assessing written work and marking it accordingly.

How TO benefit from hec plagiarism prevention service?

In order to get benefit from HEC Plagiarism Prevention Service, online service is available at:

http://www.turnitin.com

 

What IS CITATION?

A “citation” is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:

1. Information about the author

2. The title of the work
3. The name and location of the company that published your copy of the source
4. The date your copy was published
5. The page numbers of the material you are borrowing

 

WHEN DO I NEED TO CITE?

Whenever you borrow words or ideas, you need to acknowledge their source. The following situations almost always require citation:

1. Whenever you use quotes

2. Whenever you paraphrase
3. Whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed
4. Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another
5. Whenever someone else’s work has been critical in developing your own ideas.

 Sanctions for student plagiarism

In the academic world, plagiarism by students is usually considered a very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment, the entire course, or even being expelled from the institution. Generally, the punishment increases as a person enters higher institutions of learning. For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases in which a student commits severe plagiarism (e.g., submitting a copied piece of writing as original work), suspension or expulsion is likely.

How to avoid plagiarism?

ATTRIBUTION

The acknowledgement that something came from another source. The following sentence properly attributes an idea to its original author:

Jack Bauer, in his article “Twenty-Four Reasons not to Plagiarize,” maintains that cases of plagiarists being expelled by academic institutions have risen dramatically in recent years due to an increasing awareness on the part of educators.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A list of sources used in preparing a work.

CITATION

A short, formal indication of the source of information or quoted material.

ENDNOTES

Notes at the end of a paper acknowledging sources and providing additional references or information.

FOOTNOTES

Notes at the bottom of a paper acknowledging sources or providing additional references or information.

QUOTATION

Quote Your Sources Correctly!

 

Some other ways to avoid plagiarism are:

1. Paraphrase Your Sources!

2. Proofread!

3. Ask a Librarian or Your Professor!

4. Use the Library’s Online Resources and Tutorials!

5. Commit Yourself to Not Plagiarizing!

 

CONCLUSION

1. The presentation of the work of another person as one’s own or without proper acknowledgement is said to be PLAGIARISM.
2. Plagiarism is unethical and can lead to serious consequences.
3. People who are found guilty of this offence are punished duly.
4. Pakistan combats plagiarism with the help of HEC.
5. The best way to stop Plagiarism is to “Commit yourself to NOT Plagiarizing!”

By: Emanuel Anthony

Source:

WRITING, EDITING, CITATION

 

Plagiarism (EP)
Plagiarism (EP) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Themes, Motifs, and Symbols

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Themes

 

The Progression of Personal Consciousness

Perhaps the most well-known element of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is Joyce’s revolutionary use of river of awareness, a design in which the writer immediately transcribes the thoughts and feelings that go through a character’s thoughts, rather than simply reporting those feelings from the exterior viewpoint of an viewer. Joyce’s use of river of awareness creates A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man a tale of enhancing Stephen’s thoughts. In the first aspect, the very young Stephen is only able of reporting his community in easy content. The feelings that he encounters are all chaotic together with a kid’s insufficient awareness to cause and impact. Later, when Stephen is a youngster enthusiastic about thinking, he is able to think in a better, more mature design. Sentences are more of course purchased than in the starting segments of the novel, and thoughts success of course. Stephen’s thoughts are more mature and he is now more coherently alert to his environment. However, he still trusts without consideration in the religious, and his enthusiastic feelings of shame and spiritual inspiration are so powerful that they get in the way of logical thought. It is only in one more aspect, when Stephen is in the school, that he seems truly logical. By the end of the novel, Joyce makes a picture of thoughts that has obtained psychological, perceptive, and creative maturity.

In A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, The growth of Stephen’s awareness is particularly exciting because, insofar as Stephen is a picture of Joyce himself, Stephen’s development gives us comprehension into enhancing a fictional professional. Stephen’s encounters tip at the impacts that developed Joyce himself into the excellent creator he is regarded today: Stephen’s passion with language; his damaged operations with thinking, household, and culture; and his responsibility to creating a cosmetic of his own reflection the techniques in which Joyce relevant to the various stresses in his day-to-day life during his youth. In the last aspect of the novel, we also learn that professional, though often a contacting also needs excellent work and significant compromise. Viewing Stephen’s day-to-day battle to challenge out his cosmetic viewpoint, we get a sensation of the excellent process that is waiting for him.

The Problems of Religious Extremism

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Brought up in a serious Catholic household, Stephen at first ascribes to an utter thinking in the morality of the religious. As a youngster, this thinking potential customers him to two complete opposite dimensions, both of which are unsafe. At first, he drops into the excessive of sin, regularly getting to sleep with hookers and purposely transforming his again on thinking. Though Stephen sins willfully, he is always conscious that he functions in abuse of the church’s guidelines. Then, when Dad Arnall’s presentation needs him to come back to Catholicism, he bounces to the other excessive, becoming the best, near crazy design of spiritual responsibility and behavior. Gradually, however, Stephen acknowledges that both of these lifestyles—the absolutely sinful and the absolutely devout—are dimensions that have been incorrect and unsafe. He does not want to head an absolutely debauched day-to-day life, but also denies austere Catholicism because he seems that it does not allow him the full experience of being people. Stephen eventually actually reaches a choice to take day-to-day life and enjoy humankind after seeing a young lady going at a seaside. To him, the young lady is synonymous with genuine benefits and of day-to-day life resided to the maximum as in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

The Function of the Artist

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man looks at what it means to become a painter. Stephen’s choice at the end of the novel—to depart his household behind and go into exile in order to become an artist—suggests that Joyce identifies the artist as an actually separated determine. In his choice, Stephen changes his again on his group, neglecting to take the difficulties of governmental engagement, spiritual responsibility, and household responsibility that the group locations on its associates.

However, though the artist is a separated determine, Stephen’s greatest objective is to give a presentation to the very group that he is making. In the last few collections of the novel, Stephen discloses his wish to “forge in the smithy of my heart the uncreated mind of my competition.” He identifies that his group will always be an aspect of him, as it has designed and designed his personality. When he efficiently discloses his own thoughts, he will also express the presentation of his complete group. Even as Stephen changes his again on the conventional types of engagement and member in a group, he envisions his composing as a service to the group.

The Need for Irish Autonomy

In A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Stephen, Despite his wish to prevent nation-wide politics, he regularly considers Ireland’s place on the planet. He indicates that the Irish have always been subservient individuals, enabling strangers to control them. In his discussion with the dean of research at the school, he acknowledges that even the terminology of the Irish individuals really connected to the Language. Stephen’s comprehension of Ireland’s subservience has two results on his development as a painter. First, it creates him established to break free the ties that his Irish forefathers have recognized. As we see in his discussion with Davin, Stephen seems a troubled need to appear from his Irish history as his own individual, free from the shackles that have typically restricted his country: “Do you extravagant I am going to pay in my own day-to-day life and individual financial obligations they made?” Second, Stephen’s comprehension creates him established to use his art to recover independence for Eire. Using the obtained terminology of Language, he programs to create in a design that will be both independent from Britain and real to the Irish individuals.

 A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Motifs

Motifs are persistent components, differences, or fictional gadgets that can help to create and explain to the text’s significant styles.

Music

In A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Music, especially performing, seems to be regularly throughout A Icon of the Artisan as a Youthful Man. Stephen’s gratitude of popular music is carefully linked with his really like for the appears to be of terminology. As a very kid, he changes Dante’s risks into a tune, “[A]pologise, take out his face, take out his face, apologies.” Singing is more than just terminology, however—it is terminology developed by vivid humankind. Indeed, popular music attracts the aspect of Stephen that wants to carry on to the maximum. We see this element of popular music near the end of the novel, when Stephen instantly seems at serenity upon reading a lady performing. Her presentation needs him to remember his image to depart Eire and become a creator, strengthening his perseverance to enjoy day-to-day life through composing.

Flight

Stephen Dedalus’s very name represents the idea of journey. Stephen’s name, Daedalus, is determined from Ancient mythology, a well known contractor who styles the popular Network of The Island for Master Minos. Minos keeps Daedalus and his son Icarus caught on The Island, but Daedalus creates programs to break free by using down, string, and wax to design a set of wings for himself and his son. Daedalus destinations efficiently, but Icarus travels too high. In touches the wax positioning Icarus’s wings together and he plummets to his loss of life in the sea.

In the perspective of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, we can see Stephen as consultant of both Daedalus and Icarus, as Stephen’s father also has the last name of Dedalus. With this fabricated referrals, Joyce indicates that Stephen must always stability his wish to leave Eire with the threat of overestimating his own abilities—the perceptive comparative of Icarus’s journey too close to the sun. To reduce the problems of trying too much too soon, Stephen bides his time at the school, creating his cosmetic concept completely before trying to depart Eire and create seriously. The wildlife that appear to Stephen in the third area of Chapter 5 transmission that it is lastly time for Stephen, now completely established as a painter, to take journey himself.

Prayers, High-end Audio, and Latina Phrases

Through A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, We can often tell Stephen’s perspective by looking at the pieces of desires, tracks, and Latina terms those Joyce locations into the textual content. When Stephen is a schoolboy, Joyce features idiotic, trustworthy desires that reflection the design in which a kid might devoutly believe in the religious, even without comprehension the indicating of its spiritual doctrine. When Stephen prays in religious despite the fact that he has dedicated a people sin, Joyce transcribes a long statement of the Latina prayer, but it is clear that Stephen merely talks the terms without knowing them. Then, when Stephen is at the school, Latina is used as a joke—his associates change colloquial terms like “peace over the whole soft globe” into Latina because they find the instructional audio of the interpretation enjoyable. This jocular use of Latina makes fun of both the young males training and the firm, serious design in which Latina is used in the religious. These language cracks illustrate that Stephen is no longer serious about thinking. Finally, Joyce has a few collections from the Irish men and women tune “Rosie O’Grady” near the end of the novel. These easy collections indicate the relaxing sensation that the tune provides to Stephen and Cranly, as well as the conventional Irish lifestyle that Stephen programs to depart behind. Throughout the novel, such desires, tracks, and terms type the qualifications of Stephen’s day-to-day life.

 

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man Symbols

Symbols are items, people, results, or shades used to characterize summary thoughts or ideas.

Green and Maroon

In A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Stephen contacts the shades natural and maroon with his governess, Dante, and with two management of the Irish level of resistance, Charles Parnell and Erina Davitt. In a fantasy after Parnell’s loss of life, Stephen identifies Dante wearing natural and maroon as the Irish individuals grieve their decreased innovator. This perspective indicates that Stephen contacts the two shades with the way Irish nation-wide politics are performed out among the associates of his own household.

Emma

Emma seems to be only in glimpses throughout most of Stephen’s young day-to-day life, and he never gets to know her as an individual. Instead, she becomes synonymous with genuine really like, pristine by libido or actuality. Stephen worships Emma as the suitable of womanly cleanliness. When he goes through his devoutly spiritual stage, he thinks his compensate for his piety as a partnership with Emma in paradise. It is only later, when he is at the school, that we lastly see an actual discussion between Stephen and Emma. Stephen’s record admittance regarding this discussion shows Emma as an actual, helpful, and somewhat standard young lady, but certainly not the goddess Stephen previously creates her out to be. This more healthy perspective of Emma showcases Stephen’s desertion of the dimensions of finish sin and finish responsibility favoring a center direction, the responsibility to the gratitude of attractiveness in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
“A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man” (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Grammar and Grammars

Why study grammar?

Grammar usage in daily life:

We spend the whole life in listening, speaking, reading and writing. So all these things are based on the grammatical, our large utterances, sentences, clauses, phrases, morphemes, even sounds are connected with each other under certain rules and regulations. However we can apply these rules on onomatopoeic sounds (animal sounds etc). Grammar tells us how we should apply the rules for our exact communication.

There are three features of language that are important for the perception of the mature of grammar: it is complex, productive and arbitrary. For example:

Traffic lights are mechanical symbols and these follow certain structure like grammar.

What is Grammar?

“Grammar is the name of the amalgamation of sentences, clauses, phrases, morphemes, and sounds under the certain rules and regulation”

Grammar may be defined as a book written about grammar itself.

For Example:

School boys enquire the book stalled. May I have a grammar?

According to some advance learner, grammar only deals with the written expression not with spoken.

The point of view may be support by the etymology of grammar. It is derived from Greek word meaning “To Write”

Some languages are the dependent of grammar but some are independent. Those language which are based on sounds are dependent of grammar e.g. English, French, Urdu etc.

But those which deal with the signs expressions they have no grammatical rules e.g. Chinese.

Some people are indifferent to the grammar of their language. While many others acquire the rules and structure of their languages. It implies that a language doesn’t have a grammar until it is made explicit and can be learnt from a grammar book or at school.

Correct and Incorrect:

Correct and incorrect usage of language happen our daily life. Native speakers not having the knowledge of grammar may speak language in wrong way. But the language learner will speak that language in correct way due to having the knowledge of grammar.

The point can be support with the tour of Frank Palmer (Grammarian) in Wales.

He lived in Welsh and made and attempts to learn the Welsh language. One of his Welsh friends on hearing this said “you will learn speak better Welsh than we do – you will have leant the grammar”

First source of normative rules e.g. it is I, It is me:

English grammar is dependent upon the Latin grammar because teaching / learning we have to follow the Latin rules for English. These rules make us confused.

That’s why many people say that Latin is more logical than English because there are many functions or cases of noun e.g.

 

  • Nominative: Ali goes to school (Noun and pronoun as subject)
  • Vocative: Ali, where are you going?
  • Accusative: Where is Ali?
  • Genitive: This is Ali’s book.
  • Dative: Ali gave me his book.

There is no reason at all way English should follow the Latin.

A second source of normative rules is ‘logic’. There is noted example of the usage of double negation in English e.g.

  • I did not go nowhere. (Wrong)
  • I went somewhere. (Correct)

The logic here is based on mathematical rule that two minuses make plus.

Another prominent example of different languages concerns the usage of singular form with the numerals.

Speech and writing:

Speech plays an important role than writing in daily life. It has already mentioned that ‘grammar’ is derived from the Greek word meaning “To Write”.

It shows that grammar deals with the written language. There is totally difference between the spelling and pronunciation of English language. It is the confusion for foreign learners.

The second and most important point which becomes the reason of confusion is intonation.

In intonation we have to follow the tonic variation; rising tone, falling tone etc.

E.g.  She is pretty?  Instead of is she pretty?

Know coming to the grammatical rules it is clear that grammar paves the way speech and writing.

Morphologically, there is a variation in the formation of plural forms of singular objects or words. In the English number system e.g. there are three common ways of deriving plurals from singular:

(1)    Add—s

Apple – apples, cat – cats

(2)    “Zero” endings

Cattle – cattle, fish – fish

(3)    Change the vowel

Louse – lice, mouse – mice

Form and meaning:

                This heading deals with the semantic and grammar of some language.

There are synonyms, antonyms, homonyms etc. in the vocabulary of some language e.g.

  • Wheat ( Uncountable noun)
  • Oat, oats
  • News
  • Hair (Uncountable noun)

Another kind of consideration holds for sex and gender. The romance languages, especially French, have some examples. First in these languages every noun has two sexes; masculine (book) and feminine (door).

But know we have three categories of gender; male, female and neutral.

The last but not the least is tenses or time of any language which leads the language in its exact and fair meanings. E.g. “If you went to Paris, I would present you a gift”